ISSN 0798 1015


Vol. 38 (Nº 47) Year 2017. Page 37

Optimization problems distribution of investments for the implementation strategy of domestic tourism in Kazakhstan

Problemas de optimización de distribución de inversiones para la estrategia de implementación del turismo doméstico en Kazajstán


Received: 03/10/2017 • Approved: 06/10/2017



1. Introduction

2. Improving the strategy of development of internal tourism in Kazakhstan

3. The evaluation system of indicators for the development of domestic tourism activity

4. Conclusions



This article is an attempt to study one of the internal problems of social tourism and integrated development of recommendations on the formation of domestic tourism in Kazakhstan's development strategy. The solution to this problem can contribute to the development of internal social tourism in Kazakhstan by changing the principles of some tourist asset management and combining them into a single center of recreation and tourism, which could serve as a platform for the realization of large-scale social policy in the sphere of tourism in the country and allow the use of the advantages of the merger.
Keywords Tourist Industry, cluster approach, priority sectors of economy, sustainable development


Este artículo es un intento de estudiar uno de los problemas internos del turismo social y el desarrollo integrado de recomendaciones sobre la formación del turismo doméstico en la estrategia de desarrollo de Kazajstán. La solución a este problema puede contribuir al desarrollo del turismo social interno en Kazajstán cambiando los principios de una gestión de activos turísticos y combinando los mismos en un único centro de recreación y turismo, que podría servir de plataforma para la realización de una política social a gran escala en el ámbito del turismo en el país y permitir el uso de las ventajas de la fusión.
Palabras clave industria turística, enfoque de cluster, sectores prioritarios de la economía, desarrollo sustentable



Methodological and theoretical basis of the work consists of scientific results of economic and social researches of foreign and domestic schools to ourist services, as well as the methodology of scientific research on the functioning and the search for promising areas of effective development of the domestic tourism industry.

In the process of research methods of analysis and synthesis were applied, the system approach, methods of comparative, economic-statistical analysis, calculation and constructive method,

1. Introduction

Modern Kazakhstan - a country with a unique natural reserves, unique cultural heritage of the nomadic people, dispose undeveloped prospects for the development of tourism on the regional and international markets. Potential of tourist recreational opportunities in the historical and cultural formation of the country is able for the harmonious integration into the international tourism market to achieve speed development of tourism in the country, contributing to sustainable growth in employment and the increase of population, stimulate the development of the tourism-related industries, and, as a consequence, the growth of investment in the national economy.

In Kazakhstan implemented the concept of tourism development, in which it is said that tourism has every opportunity to provide three important effect and the economy: the first, to ensure the inflow of foreign currency and have positive views on the impact of economic indicators such as the balance of payments and total exports; second, it promotes an increase ability to work of the population;third, helping the development of the country's infrastructure.

2. Improving the strategy of development of internal tourism in Kazakhstan

Tourism organizations are open systems, the success of their activities depends on the external environment.

The external environment is a set of actions and phenomena that affect the activities of organizations, including: government agencies, consumers of tourism services, competitors, personnel, the state of society, etc.

The role and importance of organizations engaged in figures of the region's economy is diverse and very powerful, because:

The creation of tourist firms and the development of their business brings great benefits: customers - products, services businessmen - profit; region - money from taxes and fees Any enterprise or institution can profit from the immediate production and commercial activity, and perhaps with the help of investment gains (capital) to other businesses that are very profitable may make it tourist firms due to the rapid turnover and high profitability.

From the economic point of view, the effect of tourism in the form of additional demand for goods and services is of great importance. The peculiarity of tourism is that it brings to life a new form of consumption and consumer demand - the demand of tourists coming to rest - at a time of goods and services offered by the regional industry.

The law of the market dictates that any enterprise is rich because it has markets, and not because it has factories. Increasing the sales of local industry products naturally increase income of the region in which it is located.

Demand for a complex of goods and services, formed by the tourist movement, requires their production.  Therefore tourism defines influence on the development of regional industries that produce consumer goods. Thanks to this, the production of consumer goods is intensively developing, benefiting its region and raising the standard of living of the population.

Tourism changes the share of expenditures for public transport in the region.

Increase regional revenues as postal, telegraph and telephone service allows tourists subtree live contact with the place of permanent residence.

As mobile, non-stationary tourism develops, tourist spending on tourist equipment increases, which, as a rule, can not be used in a "sedentary" life. It also brings quite good returns.

With the increase in tourist flows, there is a significant increase in demand for souvenirs, local handicrafts.

The development of tourism business increases the demand for agricultural products in the region. The construction of tourist accommodation facilities has a positive impact on the state of the situation in construction. The regional infrastructure is being expanded and modernized.

The development of tourism has a beneficial effect on the revival of folk crafts, traditions and folklore.

Tourism contributes to the inflow of significant amounts of foreign exchange. A well-developed tourism industry ensures stabilization and increase in the inflow of currency into the country and regions. Moreover, the receipt of foreign currency is not only in the form of payment for tourist services, but also as currency exchange for everyday needs of tourists.

The national and regional importance of tourism is the ability to bring large revenues to the state budget and the regional budget through taxes. And the more income of tourist organizations and enterprises, the more revenues in these budgets.

3. The evaluation system of indicators for the development of domestic tourism activity

In order to identify especially important areas for the development of domestic tourism, a study was conducted to identify factors that affect the tourist potential of the area and the degree of their importance.

Due to the fact that the tourism industry is influenced by many factors, and their determination is the most important task in the analysis features of regional tourism.

As is known, there are different types of factor classifications, widely used for comparative study of significant signs in the analysis of the peculiarities of regional tourism. Analysis of existing studies of specialists in this field have shown different approach to the formation of classification characteristics factors affecting the development of tourism. Most authors distinguish three groups of factors in the development of tourism: political, socio-economic and natural resources; a number of other professionals bushings in the scientific revolution division exclusively on external, internal, seasonal. In targeted programs for the development of tourism general and sectoral factors are identified, such as competition, information technology, airlines, tour operator services, as well as the political and social conditions of development. S. Makarenko among the factors behind the development of tourism, is isolated: growth of social wealth and income of the population; reduction of labor and growth of free time; progress in the development of road transport and aircraft construction, communications and information technology; urbanization; transforms social consciousness. In this way, Ioshin, believes that "no clear classification of factors affecting the development of tourism in the region."

To identify the factors that make up the tourist potential of the region, we used a systematic approach to the analysis of the tourism industry, which assumes the description and assessment of the problem under study in the form of a set of its elements (subsystems), as well as their interrelationships with elements of the external environment.

The application of system analysis to the problem of the development of domestic tourism helped us to formulate 16 factors that make up, in our opinion, the tourist potential of the area. The tourism potential of the region is understood as the ability of the business in question, located in a given territory, to satisfy the population's need for travel, entertainment, recreation 

Further studies and verification of the obtained data confirmed the correctness of the conclusions drawn. In total, 16 factors were determined.

Table 1. Factors constituting the tourist potential of the area

Saturation attractions (museums, mosques, churches and cathedrals, monasteries, pedestrian streets, theaters, historical zones

Frequency of traditional mass events (Festivals, folk festivals, specific holidays of the area)

Degree of popularity (recognition) of attractions, (Availability of a single information tourist office)

The level of development of transport infrastructure (Existence of highways, railway, services - Taxi, public transport networks, airports, car rental)

The degree of landscaping of the territory (The condition of the facades of houses, the level of contamination of streets, the availability of shops, fountains, lighting in the evening, the level of air pollution, the presence of parks, green spaces, flower beds, squares, beaches)

Level of development of entertainment sector

The presence of theaters, water parks, amusement parks, boat stations, billiards, bowling, zoos, circuses, discos (nightclub)

The level of the sport sector development (presence of stadiums, ski trails, fitness centers, ski lifts, spa -Beauty, solarium, ice rinks with rental, ski centers, swimming pools)

The level of development of the catering network (the presence of bars, cafes, restaurants, canteens)

The level of security (street illumination, street patrols in the evening and at night, the availability of access mode in places of large concentrations of people,

crime level)

Level of development of the trade sector (Presence of souvenir shops, branch shops, markets, shopping centers, 24-hour shops and pharmacies)

The level of development of the banking sector (the presence of banks, ATMs, payment points with plastic cards)

Level of development of the hotel fund (Proximity to attractions, accommodation of pets (hotels for animals), number of rooms by class)

The level of socio-economic development of the area (Price level, average per capita income, city status, population density, region, economic specialization area)

Geographical location (presence of the reservoir (rivers, lakes), remoteness from major cities of regional and local climatic conditions)

The level of development of health care and resort business (the presence of hospitals, dispensaries, sanatoriums, health-improving centers, veterinary clinics)

Level of communication development (Communication quality, cellular coverage, availability of mail, access to the Internet)

Compiled by the author

To solve the next problem - to estimate the contribution of an individual factor to the tourist potential of the area - we used the method of questioning. The questionnaire developed by experts (respondents) were asked to rank the impact of each factor in the rate of 100 points for all 16 factors. The survey was conducted among the four expert groups in several regions of the southern region of Kazakhstan with a population of 50 thousand people:

Public and administrative employees, working in the field of tourism;

Employees of tourist firms;

Scientific workers involved in tourism;

Workers of tourist infrastructure.

56 experts from 14 organizations took part in the survey.

The task was to study the view of the tourist potential of various groups of the population: those who are not only a tourist, but also connected with the management of this industry:

at the level of a single object (management of the objects of the tourism industry),

group of objects (management of tourist firms),

region as a whole (public and administrative staff)

in the scales of the entire scientific community (scientists).

Survey was carried out for the southern region of Kazakhstan, as the areas of the North region for the most part are underdeveloped, sparsely populated, remote from the main tourist routes. The development of mass tourism in these areas is problematic (except for certain areas, of course, like Bayanaul, Borovoye, etc.). In general, the potential of the southern part of Kazakhstan, more developed and densely populated, much higher.

The diagram of Fig. Factorial model of development of the tourist potential of the region, characterized by the preferred direction of its development.

Fig 1.
Factorial model of development of the tourist potential of the region,
characterized by the preferred direction of its development

The study showed that all identified factors have approximately the same coefficient of 4-7%, which, within the error limits, gives the right to call all the coefficients equivalent.

This is a very important conclusion, which assumes a look at the sphere of tourism, as an organic part of the entire economy of the region.

Indeed, if the region poor transport network is not developed communication, there is the possibilities, the power network is represented by only two or three the station cafe can not talk about tourism. But most regions of our country look exactly this way: gray, dirty, unremarkable. Only now is the process of reversing this negative trend, which, unfortunately, has somewhat stopped due to the crisis phenomena in the world economy.

The only factor that stands out from a number of equivalent is the availability of attractions (20%). It should be noted that its share does not exceed the sum of any other four factors. If its share was half or at least one third of the tourist potential, one could say that the lack of sights means the inexpediency of developing tourism in the region.

Thus, the presence of the attractions is certainly an important factor, but in the case of lack of development of other components, does not provide a region inaccessible to the competition's advantage of tourism. Nevertheless, regions with a significant number of attractions should pay attention to this area of tourism, because the level of saturation and their popularity in the total provides about tourist potential.

It is noteworthy that when examining the coefficients by groups of respondents, the picture does not change significantly.

4. Conclusions

The study showed that when developing a program for developing tourism potential, equal attention should be paid to all factors that make up the region's tourist potential. Lack of proper attention to at least one of them can significantly reduce the attractiveness of the region for the development of tourism. The presence of the attractions is the most important factor in the evaluation of the tourist potential, but their absence is not for business community to recognize the signal unpromising region for tourism development.

As a result of the analysis of the essence of the tourism industry and the features of its functioning, a system of indicators reflecting the activity on domestic tourism is formulated, which includes 1) the volume of services provided by the subjects of the tourism market; 2) income of the local budget from the tourism industry; 3) expenditure of the local budget  in tourist areas, and 4) Return (as revenue to cost ratio).

Local authorities are considered in this work as an active member of the management process of the tourism industry, especially in the stages of the analysis and development planning, rather than just control. The need for the participation of local governments in the mechanism of interaction between the objects of the tourist industry is dictated primarily by the commonality of their interests and interdependence of each other.

In order to improve conditions for conducting business activities structures should be based on closer interaction with government agencies and organizations implementing state support of entrepreneurship.


Abramova T. Problems and prospects of the tourist industry in Russia // Vestnik of the Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. - 2011. - No. 4. - p. 193-208.

___________ Actual problems of development of tourism in the Russian Federation: materials of the "round table". Moscow, May 21, 2009. Moscow: Soviet Sport, 2009. 56 p. 19.

Arnold D. Virtual Tourism - A niche in cultural heritage // Niche Tourism: Contemporary issues, trends and cases / ed. by Mariana Novelli . - Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005. P. 223-232.

Cohen E. Contemporary tourism - trends and challenges: sustainable authenticity or contrived post-modernity? // Tourism: Critical Concepts in the Social Sciences. Vol. I / Ed. by Stephen Williams. - London; NY: Routledge, 2004. P. 351 ­ 365.

Meethan K. Creating Tourism Spaces: from Modernity to Globalization; Tourism Development and the Political Economy // Tourism in Global Society: Place, Culture, Consumption . - Hampshire: Palgrave, 2001. P. 16-65.

Ryan C. Equity, management, power sharing and sustainability - issue of the "new tourism" // Tourism management. 2012. № 3.

___________ Tourism: Critical concepts in the Social Sciences / ed. by Stephen Williams - London: Routledge, 2013.

* Email:

Revista ESPACIOS. ISSN 0798 1015
Vol. 38 (Nº 47) Year 2017
Indexed em Scopus, Google Schollar


[In case you find any errors on this site, please send e-mail to webmaster]

©2017. • ®Rights Reserved