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Vol. 38 (Nº 47) Year 2017. Page 34

Mountain tourism in Kazakhstan as an important factor of physical education

Turismo de montaña en Kazajstán como factor importante de la educación física

Marina PROKOFIEVA 1; Nurkeldy ESPENBETOV 2; Rizvanul SHAKIROVA 3; Oleg LUTHEROVICH 4; Tatiana IMANGULOVA 5

Received: 26/09/2017 • Approved: 06/10/2017


Content

1. Introduction

2. Conclusions

References


ABSTRACT:

As a factor of planetary culture, tourism contributes, first of all, to the discovery and exploration of all kinds of aspects and facets of culture: its forms and functions, its essence and images. Certainly, considering tourism through the prism of the development of world civilizations, historical events, milestones and epochs in the evolution of human activity, one can speak of continuity and visualization, which fully enhances and activates the informative, communicative nature of human life.
Keywords Mountain tourism, globalization, physical culture, intercultural communication, cross-cultural phenomenon, tourist activity, internal tourism.

RESUMEN:

Como factor de la cultura mundial, el turismo contribuye, en primer lugar, al descubrimiento y exploración de todo tipo de aspectos y facetas de la cultura: sus formas y funciones, su esencia e imágenes. Ciertamente, considerando el turismo a través del prisma del desarrollo de civilizaciones mundiales, acontecimientos históricos, hitos y épocas en la evolución de la actividad humana, se puede hablar de continuidad y visualización, lo que realza y activa plenamente la naturaleza informativa y comunicativa de la vida humana. Palabras clave Turismo de montaña, globalización, cultura física, comunicación intercultural, fenómeno intercultural, actividad turística, turismo interno.

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1. Introduction

Today, considering tourism in the planetary aspect, the effect of intercultural communication seems to be possible, since tourism represents all facets of modern society with all its diversity, with a concentration for a short period of time and a series of solutions to goals and objectives. Because of this, tourism research is one of the most important landmarks in modern scientific discourse.

As a factor of planetary culture, tourism contributes, first of all, to the discovery and exploration of all kinds of aspects and facets of culture: its forms and functions, its essence and images. Certainly, considering tourism through the prism of the development of world civilizations, historical events, milestones and epochs in the evolution of human activity, one can speak of continuity and visualization, which fully enhances and activates the informative, communicative nature of human life.

During any tour, business, cognitive, educational, medical, etc., the development of another socio-cultural phenomenon takes place, penetration of cross-cultural communication through acquaintance with culture, traditions and features, mentality, comparison of national characters and archetypes of this or that country takes place. At the theoretical level, tourism contributes to the identification of the problem of cultural anthropology, the interaction of man and various types of cultures.

At the present stage, consideration of mountain tourism within the framework of humanitarian knowledge, in particular from the perspective of mountain tourism within the framework of humanitarian knowledge, allows us to give a modern and comprehensive assessment of the process of expanding tourism activities - impacts on the sports sphere, ecology, international relations. Domestic researchers note the special importance of the work of explorers for the development of tourism in the mountainous areas of the CZ and this shows the enormous potential of tourism in the sports, cultural, social layer of modern society.

The need to study mountain tourism is due to the fact that Kazakhstan has almost no mastered tourist resources. It should be noted that the mountains of Kazakhstan, a significant part of which represents a unique natural resort-type complex, should be used not only in the field of sports tourism, but with a view to improving the population, as the conditions of the mountain environment serve as a means of stimulating the adaptive capabilities of the organism.

To date, the concept of "tourism" is defined as travels of a rt type, dolons (hikes), committed in their spare time, which are not related to work and change of permanent residence, and also as a service sector to meet the needs of tourists.

The government of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the state long-term development program of the country has determined the tourism industry as one of the most promising, trendy and paramount. Modern tourism industry is one of the largest and most progressive areas of global sales in the service sector. The fact of rapid and permanent development of tourism, its constant and huge influence on the sphere of economy, ecology, economy and welfare of the society is obvious.
In Kazakhstan, tourism is a stable and undeveloped development. The main objective in the development of tourism in the Republic of Kazakhstan is the development of modern high-tech and competitive tourist complexes, the basis of which will be conditions for the development of various sectors in the economy, the introduction of the world tourism activities in the system and the impact on the further development of the international collaboration in the field of tourism. Taking into account the fact that Kazakhstan possesses, in fact, unique natural opportunities, it has all the prospects for the development of almost all types of tourism: sports, mountain, cultural, ecological, extreme, business, health and others. Considering the studies of foreign experts in the tourism sector, we can see the state of development of the tourism industry in Kazakhstan at the moment, it is characterized by a progressive and sustainable development.

Kazakhstan in the near future has a chance to become a one of the largest economies in travel and tourism. Outside the country, Kazakhstan is beginning to be regarded as one of the most stable states with outstanding tourist trends. Moreover, Western experts agree that such growth and development will be promoted by such distinctive features of the country in the world tourism market as hospice and friendliness of the people of Kazakhstan, natural sights of Kazakhstan, its unique history and diverse heritage of cultural and ethnic diversity, as well as constantly Developing tourist infrastructure. N. Nazarbayev, the president of Kazakhstan, defined tourism as one of the strategic trends in the development of a non-commodity economic segment. An important and priority task was set to join, in the very near future, in the top 50 most competitive countries in the world community. It is important to understand today - Kazakh tourist complex can be a powerful lever for accelerating the overall growth and modernization of the economy. [5]

The measures taken to implement the further development of the tourism industry contribute to improving the dynamics of tourism development. The effect of tourism on the country's economy sector is seen through the prism of monetary transactions from the state to the state, which are accumulated by tourist exports and imports. A significant proportion of tourist services export revenue comes from 3 tourists from near and far abroad, as well as from the sale of tickets for domestic transport and other services in the country of residence. Tourist imports of the state are the money spent by its citizens during trips abroad, when they pay for tickets and services in the host countries, as well as paying dividends to foreign investors in the tourism industry. The difference between the country's income from the export of tourist services and the value of imports of tourist services represents the tourist payment balance, which can be negative (deficit) and positive. Consider the dynamics of the number of tourists served by types of tourism in 2010-2014 (table 1).

Table 1 - Changes in the number of tourists served by types of tourism for the period from 2010 to 2014 [4 ]

Years

Domestic tourism, people

Outbound tourism person

Inbound tourism, people

2010

174,940

261,070

37,937

2011

122 216

193,951

31,246

2012

157,933

281 709

39,640

2013

189,502

375 923

36 096

2014

186,351

333 103

30 240

Thus, according to the analysis of this table may be summarized as follows: in 2010-2014 in the development of the tourist [5] industry in Kazakhstan there is stable dynamics, which is certainly a favorable effect on the development of activities of tourism enterprises. A new impetus to the development of the tourism industry has given recognition to the tourism industry as one of the priority sectors of the economy among the seven cluster initiatives. As part of the development of the tourism cluster in the country were identified priority areas for tourism development, such as the [6] sports, business, environmental, cultural, educational, as well as extreme forms of tourism. Positive trends in the Kazakh economy, all state support for the tourist sphere, related to the implementation of the cluster development program, allow us to conclude that the growth trend of the total number of tourists will continue.

Until now, mountain tourism in Kazakhstan, whose capacity, according to many experts, is extremely large, demonstrates extremely low rates of development. The share of tourism in the country's GDP is about 1.7%, which is much lower than in other countries. The main constraining factors for the functioning of domestic and incoming tourism are: Attracting investment in the tourism industry. Implementation of tourism [7] Invest projects in every region of the country should contribute to the achievement of the goal of Kazakhstan's entry into the cohort of the most popular tourist centers of the world through the creation of a competitive tourism industry on the basis of closely interacting regional tourism clusters. From the analysis of the problems of attracting investment in the tourism industry 8 , we can note the following issues:

- insufficiency of investment tourist potential of regions abroad;

-uniqueness of business projects;

- undeveloped infrastructure suitable for tourism (transport, utilities, etc.);

- Weak interest of Kazakhstan investors in investing in the tourism industry.

According to data from the Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the market research "survey of business activity of tourist organizations" (2015), the majority of travel agencies said about vysokomurovne competition in the market of tourist services. 78% said the appearance on the market of new tourist organizations kakosnovnoy factor that enhances the growth of competition, 47% say about the impact of the aggressive advertising campaigns of competitors.

Thus, according to statistical data, it can be concluded that in Kazakhstan there is an increase in the volume of tourist service by an average of 28% per year. Favorable trends in the domestic economy, as well as government support of the industry associated with the implementation of cluster development program, suggest that the trend growth in the number of tourists will continue [9] .

Physical education is a deliberate conscious action by pedagogical means on the morpho-functional properties of the organism. Specific content is the training of physical exercises and the upbringing of physical motor qualities (NH Khakunov, 2005).

Physical education is the process of forming the need for physical exercises in the interests of the all-round development of the personality, the formation of a positive attitude toward physical culture, the development of value orientations, beliefs, tastes, habits, inclinations (YF Kuramshin, VI Popov, 2001) .

Physical culture is a kind of culture that is a specific process and the result of human activity, a means and a way of physically improving people for the performance of their social duties - this definition is given by Professor SPbGAFK them. P.F. Lesgaft, V.M. Vydrin (YF Kuramshin, VI Popov 1999) [10] .

Physical culture must be considered in two aspects: as a sub-culture of society as a whole (as a social phenomenon) and individual refraction of it in each individual. As "part of the common culture, a set of achievements in the creation and use of special means of physical perfection of the people, consciously organized and managed by the physical development of people" [11] , considering physical education well-known expert in this field, Professor LP Matveev (1983, 1984, 1991).

According to N.I. Ponomareva (1994, 2003), physical culture is "social activity and its results in creating a person's physical fitness for life. Summarizing the determination of physical culture, in the socio-economic aspect, it can be characterized as a social phenomenon in relation to the group, society as a whole, to physical qualities and abilities; the knowledge and [12] skills, trends and tendencies, perhaps on the basis of which, the physical abilities are manifested in certain activities; Tools, with the help of which the whole subsystem of personalities is formed; Obvious ideals, norms, principles of behavior, personal orientations of values, on the basis of which the process of formation takes place; Social and domestic relations between people, formed when the physical abilities of people are realized and in the process of organizing the above-mentioned subsystem personalities; Those social institutions that control these processes.

Traditionally, physical perfection (NH Khakunov, 2005, GM Soloviev, 1999) is regarded as a certain level of physical development and physical readiness. However, in a number of modern works this concept also includes the state of human health as an obligatory component and notes that only a healthy person is physically perfect. Therefore, further we will consider the conceptual apparatus, which includes researchers in determining the essence and structure of the concepts of physical perfection, that is, the concepts of "physical development", "physical preparedness" and "health."

Physical culture and sports activity is determined by the nature and measure of young people's access to knowledge by physical exercises, their target orientation - physical culture or sports orientation. In our work, they are recorded in regular and systematic employment, time use [13] , forms of employment organization, as well as their motivation conditioning.

The process of motor activity in mountain tourism is combined with the laws governing the formation of laws of management theory and the requirements of didactic principles (PT Sobenko, 2006).

In the construction of the learning process, one can distinguish the developed BL. Rukodelnikovym (2009) technique of movement and insurance in the mountains, which is applied to the mountain tourism is mainly characterized by originality of cognitive activity of tourists, their ability to control their movements in the performance of the studied [14] technical element. The system of motor activity of a mountain tourist has a multi-stage structure and consists of eight subsystems, the elements of which are connected to each other more closely than the subsystems themselves.

The motor activity of a mountain tourist is carried out depending on the relief to be overcome by the following main groups:

Grassy slopes and screes;

According to the relief:

Rocky slopes;

Glaciers and ice slopes;

Snow and firn slopes;

Mountain rivers.

On each of the obstacles encountered in the mountains, mountain tourists use one or the other, but common for all forms of mountain relief, the type of movement. How does a mountain tourist move: freely, with the choice and use of natural support points created by nature itself, or it is limited in choice and forced to use artificial, created by himself, the points of support for the hands, for the feet, that is, it does not move freely.

Thus, overcoming the obstacle on each relief will be divided into two main types of movement:

Movement is natural;

By type of movement:

Movement using artificial

Points of support.

In each of the modes of movement, characteristic modes of movement are distinguished, those that are basic and directly applicable in overcoming the mountain obstacle:

By the way of transportation:

walking;

Climbing

By the nature of the movement, the main methods directly related to overcoming obstacles include:

By the nature of movement:

climb;

traverse;

Descent.

The direction of movement when overcoming obstacles (directly, obliquely, zigzag) affects the choice of various methods of movement. When carrying out the methods of movement directly during the period of overcoming the obstacles of the mountain reliefs, a certain safety measure is necessary, which stipulates:

Self-insurance with

On grassy slopes and screes;

performing reception ne -

On rocky slopes;

Advancement:

On glaciers and ice slopes;

On snow and firn slopes.

Insurance

Performing the movement:

On grassy slopes and screes;

On rocky slopes;

On glaciers and ice slopes;

On snow and firn slopes.

Self-insure insuree:

On grassy slopes and screes;

On rocky slopes;

On glaciers and ice slopes;

On snow and firn slopes.

In most cases, when the reception of movement lanyard usually already predetermined by performing reception, and specific actions mountain tourist currently. Lanyard when the reception of movement must be aimed primarily at increasing the stability traveler body position (equilibrium). For example, during walking - by adhering two, and when climbing - three support points.

Effect of mountaineering to systems and athlete body functions. Presentation about the positive impact of mountain tourism in the system and functions of the body 15 is formed on the basis of the experience of human activity. Tourism is a peculiar kind of active sport and physical activity of the person during the period of training or direct holding of 16 sports hike.

The main symptom, which is based on the estimation of mountaineering, is conscious, systematically increasing their physical activity by man in campaigns using the movement for its own muscular strength and the natural 17 water and wind power.

Mountain tourism places high demands on the body, especially to the cardiovascular, respiratory, locomotor, endocrine and excretory systems, leading to the restructuring of bodies: an increase in their weight or improve the functional activities.

Modern requirements for the preparation of athletes for mountain tourism includes not only professional related with strong skills and abilities, but also records the effect of long-term aftereffects of specific loads. In other words, using certain means and method of influence on the system and tourist functions of the body, it is necessary to know and take into account the perspective of their special influence. Knowledge of the mechanisms and characteristics of the effects of certain physical exercises on the system and the functions of the body are trained in the field of mountain tourism will allow more sophisticated approach to the development of a tourist complex preparation techniques, to take into account and the influence of exercise on the health of students in the present tense and in the future 18 .

Tourism remains the sport, which has no clear organization of the training process, developed programs and procedures of the intensity and load control, both during training and during the actual trip. Therefore, classes and preparation for the trip participants, is generally carried out individually, in their scheme is very far from perfect. Tourists also do not have recommendations for the control of their health and the state, which would allow them to more objectively assess the degree of their readiness and tolerability of the anticipated loads.

Results of studies in mountaineering (AA Fedyakin, 2001) show, in particular, that the power load is performed as lower limb muscles and shoulder girdle muscles and the lower extremities. It follows that the muscles of the upper and lower extremities in the performance of motor actions in the campaign should be well supplied with blood, that the blood supply svidetelstvuetob strengthening muscles more active as improving the adaptation of the vascular system to perform sports mountain hiking.

However, it should be emphasized that the "stock" of health acquired in the campaign lacks only 1.5 - 2 months, if the body does not maintain favorable conditions, at least, a simple set of physical exercises. However, regular hiking trips in the body create a framework that allows for a very short time to quickly adapt to physical stress of high intensity, and take them (JL Schalke, 1997) without much effort.

The experimental data obtained in the mountain tourist qualifications, suggest that targeted class mountaineering allow to expand not only the physical qualities of sportsmen-tourists, but also an important means of improving the body's life-support systems involved in sports (YL Schalke, 1997; and . .YU Brink, MP Bondarets, 1990; AA Fedyakin, 2001 and others). 19 .

Mountain tourism in the modern world sports movement is an indicator of progressive tendencies, not only in sports tourism, but also in mountaineering, rock climbing, caving and other extreme travel. Effect of motor tourism specifics, tourism training technique for athletes and travelers can not be overestimated. Therefore, identification of trends and the definition of mountain tourism development prospects outside the scope of the interests only of the sport.

Performing sports hike in the mountain tourism is based on the principle of maximum self-service of tourists, and it can be hiking, water, horse, ski travel, both independently and in conjunction with the educational program, hunting, fishing and the rest fixed. In modern mountaineering actively expands the geography of sports trips, and along with this there are also new methodological approaches to the interpretation of individual aspects of the sport, the canons of art. The prospect of development of this kind appears on the background of intense competition between schools, both in the immediate achievements in sport, the competition, and in the field of preparation of highly skilled athletes 20 .

2. Conclusions

An important and significant trend in the development of mountain tourism in the past few years, is a constant dynamics problems trekking routes and in general. By the continuous growth and development of tourism on a planetary scale, include the tendency of scientific, educational, artistic and other types of tourism.

The problem of under-utilization of the richest tourist and rekreatsionnnyh Resources of Kazakhstan, the most important of which are the mountains, is not only the lack of infrastructure development, but due to poor awareness of people about the health benefits of outdoor activities in the mountains.  

Reference

1. Brink IY, Bondarec MP Atelier tourist. Moscow. Physical education and sport. 1990. ISBN 5-278-00278-6

2. The Law of RK "On tourist activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan": Presidential Decree of 13.06.2001, № 211 // Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. 23.06.2001

3. Kuramshin, YF Theory and methods of physical culture [Text]: a textbook / Ed. YF Kuramshina. - Moscow: Soviet Sport, 2004. 464 p.

4. Nikitinsky ES Vukolov VN Formation of the tourism industry in Kazakhstan during the years of state independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan // Agency for Tourism and Sport, the Kazakh Academy of Sports and Tourism. Proceedings of the International scientific-practical Astana konferentsii.- 2006.

5. NI Ponomarev general methods of teaching biology, 3rd ed., sr. - Moscow: Publishing Center "Academy", 2008. - 280 p.. ISBN 978-5-7695-5459-9

6. Popov VI modern diplomacy. Theory and practice. 2000. 573 p.

7. Rukodelnikov BL Physical training tourist

8. Sobenko PT Physical training alpenistov and mountain tourists. - Kiev 1986.

9. Fedyakin AA Yourself psychologist. Biological basis of health tourism. 1999.

10. Hakuna NH innovative components of the educational system development of the values ​​of physical culture and sports. 2009

11. YL shawl tourist health. 1987.

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1 Shilibekova B. Analysis of the current state of the tourism branch in the Republic of Kazakhstan. 2013.

2 http://kaznpu.kz/docs/vestnik/Est-geogrN2011-2.pdf

3 Prospects for the development of tourism in modern Kazakhstan. 2010.

4 Shilibekova B. Analysis of the current state of the tourism branch in the Republic of Kazakhstan. 2013.

5 Shilibekova B. Analysis of the current state of the tourism branch in the Republic of Kazakhstan. 2013.

6 Ibid

7 Shilibekova B. Analysis of the current state of the tourism branch in the Republic of Kazakhstan. 2013.

8 Shilibekova B. Analysis of the current state of the tourism branch in the Republic of Kazakhstan. 2013.

9 Prospects for the development of tourism in modern Kazakhstan. 2010.

10 http://referati.info/projects/project-80313.html

11 http://vip-students.com/ref/ref-3937.html

12 file: /// C: / Users / 777 / Downloadsb .pdf

13 http://all-referats.com/diploms/diplom-3846.html

14 http://data.lesgaft.spb.ru/getfile/8ac677f18f616deff1b87cedabc1142b/

15 http://data.lesgaft.spb.ru/getfile/6d8b69493d83b1c00cbaf3d565be54d2/

16 Features of tourism as a sport. Tourism philosophy. https://vk.com/wall-92029042_2520

17 http://www.sevseun.com/news.php?readmore=575

18 http://data.lesgaft.spb.ru/getfile/6d8b69493d83b1c00cbaf3d565be54d2/

19 http://data.lesgaft.spb.ru/getfile/6d8b69493d83b1c00cbaf3d565be54d2/

20 Excerpts from the work: Pedagogical system of long-term preparation of sportsmen in mountaineering


1. Candidate of Sciences, Associate Professor. Kazakh Academy of Sports and Tourism. Email: sensusveris11@gmail.com

2. Master

3. Ph.D

4. Candidate of Sciences, senior lecturer

5. Candidate of Sciences, associate professor Kazast


Revista ESPACIOS. ISSN 0798 1015
Vol. 38 (Nº 47) Year 2017
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