ISSN 0798 1015

logo

Vol. 38 (Nº 14) Año 2017. Pág. 26

Specific nature of perception of Consumer Goods’ Commercionyms (Represented by the names of foods and beverages)

Naturaleza específica de la percepción de commercionyms de bienes de consumo (representada por los nombres de alimentos y bebidas)

Dmitry SERGEEVICH Sknarev 1; Anna BORISOVNA Cherednyakova 2; Yana SERGEEVNA Dobrynina 3; Vera DMITRIEVNA Mishina 4

Recibido: 01/10/16 • Aprobado: 24/10/2016


Content

1. Introduction

2. Materials and methods

3. Results and discussion

4. Conclusions

References


ABSTRACT:

The paper analyzes the perception of commercial names (commercionyms) of mass consumer goods by the target audience. The survey was carried out among consumers to find out the correlation between commercionyms and the following marketing criteria: targeting, positioning, individuality and originality. Having studied the names of different product categories (foods and beverages), the au-thors of the paper arrived at the conclusion about the importance of a brand’s clear perception by the consumers, the basis being the product’s name developing marketing associations connected with the promoted product in the target audi-ence’s consciousness.
Key words: linguistics, marketing, naming, branding, brand, commercionym.

RESUMEN:

Este estudio analiza la percepción por el público objetivo de los nombres comerciales (commercionyms) de bienes de consumo masivo . La encuesta fue realizada entre los consumidores para averiguar la correlación entre commercionyms y los siguientes criterios de marketing: objetivo, posicionamiento, individualidad y originalidad. Después de estudiar los nombres de categorías de diferentes productos (alimentos y bebidas), los autores del estudi llegaron a la conclusión sobre la importancia de la percepción clara de la marca por los consumidores, la base que el nombre marketing asociaciones relacionados con el producto promocionado en la conciencia de la audiencia.
Palabras clave: lingüística, marketing, naming, branding, marca, commercionym.

1. Introduction

A brand’s ability to attract the attention of the target audience, to intrigue it and to evoke the desire to buy a product is essential in today’s market context. We believe that the perception of a brand’s axiologically important characteristics by the potential and loyal consumers is especially relevant. The works of national and foreign experts (Lindstrom 2008, Muzykant 2014, Novichikhina & Sternin 2013, Ries & Ries 2005, Sknarev & Author 2011) point out the necessity to support all brand-oriented links and associations developing in consumers’ consciousness due to marketing communications.

Modern scientists (Lindstrom 2008, Chumikov 2016 and others) focus on sensory branding with its task to activate the relations between the consumers and the brand connected with the optimization of impulse-affected shopping, with the ignition of a consumer’s interest in a product,  with the dominance of a consumer’s emotional reaction over his rational thinking (Lindstrom op. cit.: 131). Sensory branding develops a strong, positive and stable connection between the brand and its consumer – a particular feeling of a brand.  That is why the target audience chooses a product under the influence of its perception and sensory attractiveness, including the distinctiveness and familiarity of a brand as well as the clarity of its perception.

Commercial names, shaping the perception of goods and services by the audience, play a very important role in modern marketing communications. H. Charmasson is right in stating, “A name is a goodwill ambassador, a herald, a promise, the first thing that a consumer hears about a firm or its product” (Charmasson 1999: 18). It is the first impression from a commercial name that influences the consumers’ attitude to a company or a product defined by the name and affects the brand’s clear perception by developing the corresponding marketing associations.

Expert publications offer a wide range of terms (advertising name, selling name, brand name, ktematonym, pragmatonym, commercial nomination, etc.) to designate a product’s name, but we have chosen the notion of commercionym, which we are going to use, following V. V.  Dubchak (2014) and A. D. Eskova (2011).

We define commercionym as the main meaningful text unit of marketing communications creating a verbal visual image of a product in consumers’ consciousness, evoking the corresponding product oriented marketing associations.  The main function of a name is to identify a product, to nominate it, to identify it among many others, to stress its individuality and importance, to convey the brand’s nature.

M. Lindstrom (op. cit.) argues that brand building presupposes a set of positive impressions from interactions with the brand to be developed in consumers. Creating perfect conditions for brand perception demands flawless attractiveness of this brand concerning the sensory feelings that it provokes in consumers (ibid.: 51).

For example, A. and L. Ries stress the importance of a product’s name for consumers’ perception; they show that for some categories of goods, the name only can trigger the first impulse for the brand to be successful (Ries & Ries 2005: 16).

The impression made by the name on a consumer is defined by psychologists as engram, meaning the influence made by a name on a person regardless of the object the name belongs to.   That is why when choosing the right name for a product, it is necessary to consider the dual nature of a word paying attention to the impression and meaning of the future brand (Felser 2009).

When choosing a name for a product, it is necessary to remember that commercionym is a word or several words. Any word is a system of communication, since it has lexical meaning, emotional and stylistic connotations, history (etymology), structure (morphology), aesthetics (inner rhythm, graphics, symmetry, harmony, etc.). So, the information it conveys is collected on several levels – mental and emotional, conscious and subconscious. 

The purpose of this research is to consider the specific character of perception of consumer goods’ commercionyms by consumers. 

2. Materials and methods

The material for the research is the authors’ database containing 600 commercial names of 12 categories of goods (foods and beverages), with 50 commercionyms from each being chosen for the study.

The main method of the research is the survey of the target audience.   In the research, the authors interpreted the answers of 500 people, whose impressions about the marketing associations connected with the names of the consumer goods led to the conclusions to be demonstrated below. The data about the specific character of consumer commercionym perceptions by the respondents prove the reliability and the large scale of the work done.

When analyzing the units in this research, we followed the marketing criteria determining the efficiency of a commercial name: 1) targeting (addressing the target audience), 2) positioning, 3) individuality and 4) originality.

3. Results and discussion

We found out that the commercionyms satisfying all these requirements are clear in perception by the consumers’ consciousness.  Such names are the basis to create an efficient image of a product aimed at distinguishing the product among its competitors; they are full of marketing associations, which are meaningful for the target audience and connected with the situations of the brand consumption.

Table 1
Commercionym perception by consumers in accordance with marketing criteria 

Number

Goods category

Targeting

Positioning

Individuality

Originality

Clear perception

1

wine

58%

56%

58%

58%

50%

2

vodka

54%

46%

62%

52%

40%

3

sausage

80%

62%

74%

40%

36%

4

sweets

88%

80%

76%

75%

70%

5

coffee

50%

30%

56%

30%

30%

6

milk

70%

62%

58%

48%

40%

7

beer

86%

80%

64%

56%

50%

8

juice

74%

60%

50%

50%

50%

9

cheese

70%

60%

50%

44%

40%

10

bread

74%

58%

52%

56%

50%

11

tea

78%

80%

58%

60%

56%

12

chocolate

60%

30%

40%

30%

30%

Total

79%

62%

62%

52%

46%

Table 1 shows that the commercionyms of different product categories have different correlations with the marketing criteria of consumer perception. For example, the sausages (Mikoyan [proper name, allusion to high-quality soviet food products], Uralskii bogatyr [Russian folk legend hero of the Urals], Romkor [an acronym of Russian meat corporation], Khoroshii vkus [good taste], etc.) demonstrate high values in targeting – 80%, sweets (Komilfo [comme il faut], Ptiche moloko[bird’s milk], Krasnaya shapochka [Little Red Riding Hood], Rafaello, etc.)88%, beer (Uralskii master [master of the Urals], Zhigulevskoe [made in Zhiguli – a traditional beer brewery location], Heineken, Carlsberg, etc.) 86%, tea (Greenfield, Tess, Bernley, Beseda, etc.) 78%.

In our research, the commercionyms of the following mass consumer goods have high value for positioning in consumers’ perception: sweets (Vdokhnovenie [inspiration] ‒ best present-compliment) 80%, tea (Ahmad – genuine English tea, Hilltop – a present, souvenir) 80%, beer (Baltika – the beer the whole nation drinks) 80%.

Brand building, according to M. Lindstrom (op. cit.: 84), presupposes the development of its individuality. This means that the brand’s character must be like that of a person.  Our data state that a brand’s individuality, its essence and character are efficiently represented by the names of sausages (Zdorovaya ferma [healthy farm] – natural, quality, healthy) – 74%, and sweets (Dushechka [darling]‒ warmth, care, love) – 76%.

“A name is a character. Here, the name of a product, just like an Indian’s name, is not just a combination of sounds, but rather has deep meaning, charisma and predicted fortune” (Sirotkina 2009: 35). Surely, a successful name provides a product with a character, individuality and difference, making it attractive and desirable for a consumer, which is supported by the results of our research.

A product’s originality is one of the most important marketing criteria affecting its perception by consumers. The results of our research show that the majority of the analyzed names are not very imaginative. In this criterion, the values of consumer goods’ commercionyms are not very high (names of cheese take 44%, names of sausages – 40%, names of coffee and chocolate – 30%). And here an observation made by V. S. Elistratov and P. A. Pimenov (2014: 17) about the fact that “at all times the naming, especially the commercial one, does not illustrate any talents” is very important. We tend to agree with the conclusion of the researchers about the fact that modern Russian naming, although having some success, is rather clumsy and tasteless, in other words, eclectic, chaotic, obscure (ibid.: 14). H. Charmasson (op. cit.) analyzes foreign product names and notes that the majority of the commercial names are boring, difficult to remember and very often useless.

Our data show that in the originality criterion the following commercionyms of sweets (Burevestnik [thunderbird], Vesna [spring], Mishka na severe [little bear of the north], Krasnyi mak [red poppy]) – 75%, and tea (Curtis, Chernyi drakon [black dragon], Sem slonov [seven elephants], etc.) – 60% – are successful in consumers’ perception.

The clarity of consumer perception of the analyzed commercial names is distributed as follows:  sweets 70%, tea 56%, beverages (beer, wine, juice) and bread 50%, vodka, milk and cheese 40%, sausage 36%, coffee and chocolate 30%.

On the whole, the conducted research shows the importance of the marketing criteria (targeting, positioning, individuality, originality of a brand) reflection in product names, these criteria developing the clear perception of mass consumer goods by the audience. For example, all analyzed commercionyms have high value of targeting (79%). The respondents note average values for the brands’ positioning (62%), their individuality (62%) and originality (52%). The results of the research show that 46% of commercionyms have clear perception.

The commercial name, being one of the most active communicator of a brand, contains the key information for its consumers. And here the creation of a name is based on a particular concept developing an efficient image of a product aimed at distinguishing it among its competitors and filled with marketing associations meaningful for the target audience and linked with the situation of the brand consumption.

In the texts of marketing communication, a commercionym, acting as a powerful tool to create a brand’s image, has a high degree of emotional influence on the target audience. First of all, the name evokes particular marketing associations (individuality, positioning, target audience). Secondly, the brand’s name must be vivid, harmonic and memorable. Thirdly, the name must satisfy cultural and language criteria (adherence to language norms). Fourthly, the associations evoked by the brand name in consumers’ consciousness (positive, rational, emotional, social, ethical) are very important.  Fifthly, the name is the basis for an advertising campaign with the play on words, literal meaning, consumers’ associations. For example, the bakery goods of Pervyi Khlebokombinat [the first bakery complex] are mainly associated with high quality products manufactured with natural ingredients, while the Dobryi [kind, adj.]juice has an image of a qualitative and available product implying the generosity and warm-heartedness of its manufacturers.

4. Conclusions

In modern communication, a commercial name is the basis to develop the links between the brand and its consumer. The name is able to evoke some emotional response from a consumer earlier than the other characteristics of the product. For example, when studying the advertising material and choosing goods on the shelves in the shops, a consumer responds first of all to the brand’s name.

Thus, a commercionym expresses the impressions of a brand in one phrase, influencing its perception in consumers’ consciousness, provides it with legal protection, is unique, influences the image and the sales, promotes the product on the market.  

References

Charmasson, H. (1999). The name’s the thing: Creating the perfect name for your company or product (L. Korpan, trans.). Saint Petersburg: Piter.

Chumikov, A.N. (2016). Adversiting and public relations: Image, reputation, brand. Moscow: Aspekt Press.

Dubchak, V.V. (2014). Commercionyms of the Khmelnitskii subway station: Motivation, creation method, semantics of product basis, and structure. Aktualni Problemi filologii ta perekladoznavstava. 7: 55-59 (in Ukrainian).

Elistratov, V.S., & Pimenov, P.A. (2014). Naming: The art of giving a name. Moscow: Omega-L (in Russian).

Eskova, A.D. (2011). Preface. In Frequency dictionary of M. Gorky’s novel «Klim Samgin’s life»:  proper names and names (3-8). Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University.

Felser, G. (2009). Consumer psychology and advertising. Kharkiv, Ukraine: Gumanitarnyi Tsentr (in Russian).

Lindstrom, M. (2008). Brand sense: Build powerful brands through touch, taste, smell, sight, and sound (N. Yatsyuk, trans.). Moscow: Eksmo.

Muzykant, V.L. (2014). Branding: Brand management. Moscow: RIOR, Infra-M (in Russian).

Novichikhina, M.E., & Sternin, I.А. (2013). Audit of trade mark. Voronezh, Russia: Voronezh State University (in Russian).

Ries, A. & Ries, L. (2005). The origin of brands: How product evolution creates endless possibilities for new brands (D. Kuntashov, trans.). Мoscow: AST, Tranzitkniga.

Sirotkina, I.V. (2009). How to cook a delicious brand. Moscow: Alfa-Press (in Russian).

Author  & Author. (2011, October 27 – November 1). The role of marketing communications in developing the consumer-brand relationships. Paper presented at Key instruments of human co-existence organization: Economics and law, Kiev, London (125-127). Odessa, Ukraine.


1. Dr. Habil. (Philology). South-Ural State University (National Research University), Institute of Econ-omy, Trade and Technology, Chelyabinsk, Russia. E-mail: editor9@academicpapers.org

2. Ph.D. (Education). South-Ural State University (National Research University), Institute of Econ-omy, Trade and Technology, Chelyabinsk, Russia

3. Ph.D. (Engineering). South-Ural State University (National Research University), Institute of Econ-omy, Trade and Technology, Chelyabinsk, Russia

4. Ph.D. (Philosophy). South-Ural State University (National Research University), Institute of Econ-omy, Trade and Technology, Chelyabinsk, Russia


Revista ESPACIOS. ISSN 0798 1015
Vol. 38 (Nº 14) Año 2017

[Índice]

[En caso de encontrar algún error en este website favor enviar email a webmaster]

©2017. revistaESPACIOS.com • Derechos Reservados