Espacios. Vol. 37 (Nº 23) Año 2016. Pág. 17
Carlo Alessandro CASTELLANELLI 1
Recibido: 28/03/16 • Aprobado: 02/05/2016
3. Sustainable development
Environmental sustainability is driving firms to extend their green effort across their supply chain. Environmental management refers to sustainable management approaches that aim for engaging in green processes and practices in order to reduce the environmental impacts of the firm's activities. This article aims to demonstrate sustainable practices by Warwick company, a german manufacturer of musical instruments, showing preservation of the environment as na important part of its corporate policy. Although financial expenses, positive results in reducing energy costs and environmental impacts are reported
La sostenibilidad ambiental está impulsando empresas a extender su esfuerzo verde a través de su cadena de suministro. La gestión ambiental se refiere a los enfoques de manejo sostenible que buscan participar en procesos verdes y prácticas para reducir los impactos ambientales generados por las actividades de la empresa. Este artículo pretende demostrar prácticas sostenibles por la compañía Warwick, un fabricante alemán de instrumentos musicales, la preservación del medio ambiente como parte importante de su política corporativa. Aunque se reportan los gastos financieros, se observan resultados positivos en la reducción de costos de energía e impactos ambientales
Green manufacturing (GM) has been recognized worldwide as a key strategy for sustainable development and advanced model for manufacturing enterprises (SME, 1996). The concept incorporates the principles of environmental protection and energy conservation into production and service activities to reduce industrial waste, save energy and scarce resource, and minimize pollutions to natural environment, while accomplishing production economy. In this paper we used the term "green production" to explicitly include functions closely linked to sustainable manufacturing, such as product design and distribution. During the past two decades, great and rapid economic development and technological advancement have been witnessed; but meantime the damage made to the environment and over-consumption/waste of natural resource also become worse, especially in fast growing countries such as China and India (Zhang et al., 2011). Efforts for establishing related standards or legislation are being made by governments and industries of different nations to improve the situation. However, great challenges remain and the efforts are far from adequate.
Related to the natural environment, corporations are increasingly using strategic alliances to address complex social and environmental issues, like climate change, because of the grand scale and uncertainty embedded in these issues. These issues lack a simple or certain solution, and addressing them is often beyond the capabilities of any individual business (Selsky and Parker 2005; Lin 2012). As such, it is critical to foster collaborations among diverse partners in combining complementary capabilities to explore innovative solutions.
In the 21st Century the term 'ecology' and 'ecological action' have become increasingly important in view of the scarcity of natural resources on this earth and the increasingly frequent natural disasters that result from the exploitation of man to his environment.
In order to counter this development work specifically, there must be a change in thinking at all levels, from households to large corporations, and across national and continental borders. In this context, the term 'sustainability' becomes more and more important. The use of natural resources should be limited to a level that enables the regrowth, so the ecological system is intact. Only with consistent environmental actions can we protect our environment sustainably and preserve it for future generations.
Ecological and environmental awareness begins in the little ones with the switch from bad habits and behaviors. This includes, for example, removing unnecessary lights, switching off standby consumers, avoiding the over heating of rooms, fuel-saving driving or targeted prevention in everyday life. These measures can be effectively implemented by a deliberate change in behavior with the individual. It becomes more difficult when the company plans to invest in new, often expensive technologies that lead to savings in energy consumption. Here the ecological thought must necessarily go hand in hand with rational economic calculation, so that in the end will benefit both sides, the environment and the investor.
Warwick/Framus produces its instruments and amplifiers using carbon-neutral principles, any other manufacturing process is carbon-neutral as well. The company is purchasing its wood from sustainable sources (certified by the Forest Stewardship Council) and produces all the electricity it needs through its own natural-gas-powered plant, solar roof-mounted facilities, a boiler fueled by wood waste from its guitars and wind power.
Warwick is operating according to the guidelines of European Unions Eco-Management and Audit Scheme, which is a voluntary environmental management instrument designed to continuously improve companies' environmental performance.
The widespread rise of interest in and support for the concept of sustainable development could signify an important shift in the relationship of humanity with nature and in inter-human relations. SD's emphasis on mutual dependence stands in contrast to the dominant outlook of the last couple of hundred years (particularly in developed nations), which was based on the separation of the environment from socio-economic issues. The concept of sustainable development is partially a result of growing awareness of the global links between mounting environmental problems, socio-economic issues related to poverty and inequality, and concerns about a healthy future for humanity (Hopwood et al., 2005a and Hopwood et al., 2005b).
The Sustainable development (SD) paradigm, which was introduced in a formal fashion in the 1990s (Khalili, 2011b) targets environmental, social, ecological and economic sustainability through a cohesive framework that treats them as interconnected goals. SD requires the consideration of a much more extensive and integrated set of objectives while monitoring the outcome of developmental activities via a wide range of indicators. Consequently, outcomes have to be measured in multiple dimensions and at the macroeconomic level. Alignment between enterprise objectives and regional, national and global objectives can be achieved through signals such as raw material prices, energy prices, and regulations and policy that mitigate risk. The alignment of the micro- and macroeconomic objectives is expected to improve as Sustainable Development (SD) is gaining wider acceptance as a paradigm for macroeconomic policy.
As outlined in the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21, sustainable development has become the overarching goal of the international community, and influences the development of national strategies for sustainable development. Despite all the efforts, however, concerns over global economic and environmental developments prevail in many countries. These concerns have been intensified by recent prolonged global energy, food and financial crisis, (UNDESA, 2011).
Cleaner production is defined as an "integrated preventative environmental strategy" for improved resource efficiency, minimization of risks and environmental impact, and reduced waste and costs in an organization's operations (UNEP, 2013). It has been promoted since the 1980s as a strategy to enable businesses to minimize waste and improve their environmental performance while reaping financial benefits from those activities. In North America and Europe, CP has enabled companies to reduce costs and improve efficiency in their operations. It also opened the door for more formal environmental management systems and strategic investments across a variety of business functions, leading to higher productivity, revenues and market share (Hart, 1995 and Porter and van der Linde, 1995). It has become the most widely adopted of various environmental management practices, and there has been much research and evidence for a positive correlation between cleaner production and improved business performance (Hart and Dowell, 2011). Hart and Dowell (2011) also note that broader sustainable development strategies, including addressing market needs at the base of the pyramid and developing clean technologies, have not been as widely adopted by companies because they present a greater challenge and less certain returns. Thus, from a business perspective, there is a gap between the shorter term, microeconomic focused cleaner production strategies and those aimed at addressing macroeconomic sustainability.
Due to its philosophy, broad scope and long-term horizons, sustainable development necessitates capacity building via advancement of sustainable societal patterns and the creation of a new set of visions, paradigms, policies, methodological tools and applicable procedures. The first and foremost step on this path is the development of human capital required to make such a transition.
The role of CP in the sustainable development of modern societies has been discussed over the last two decades. Examples include a study conducted by Kjeheim in 2005 that suggested that CP as a stand-alone option will not create a sustainable society, but expanding the concept is believed to be an important step in the right direction, provided that sufficient funding is available over an extended period. Proposed modifications include encouraging adaptation of CP in the many very small enterprises, use of CP in total quality control strategies, and inclusion of CP in the design of environmental management systems (Kjaeheim, 2005).
As previously discussed, CP aims at protecting both economic growth and environmental values, specifically with regards to the industrial sector; however, due to the magnitude and criticality of the changes required by CP, implementation is often challenging and can follow a steep learning curve. To address this issue, UNEP has suggested that cleaner production centers and research/academic institutes, along with industry associations and consultancies, should weigh in and help with CP design, but many of these organizations lack the resources to develop comprehensive training regimes and materials (UNEP, 2007).
Increased CP training in industry (supply chain), government, the private and public sectors, and academia is a priority on the SD agenda due to the key role these institutions play in addressing globalized nature of environmental and social problems and challenges. Sustainable supply chain management, in particular, is gaining momentum as sustainability issues do not stop at the gates of single companies and have to be considered along the supply chain of the entities across, which related material and information flows occur (Seuring et al., 2008).
The complexity of the process involved with making necessary changes to CP strategy to support SD often prevents academia, and industry and governmental leaders from proceeding beyond the stage of grappling with the magnitude of the challenges they face. The urgency of adopting the sustainability paradigm, however, makes it obvious that nations must work effectively on developing, testing and implementing multi-disciplinary strategies with the promise to make progress toward a sustainable society (Bonilla et al., 2010). Such defined urgency motivated design of programs such as one presented in this paper.
We believe that while cleaner production was designed to address environmental sustainability only, it has the potential to affect related social, economic and prosperity indicators, measured at the macroeconomic level, with expansion of the traditional CP model. CP design for sustainable development (CP–SD) requires an expansion of the traditional CP model that incorporates a more comprehensive understanding of sustainability as a multidimensional objective, which is in line with the view that environmental, social and economic sustainability are interrelated. The CP–SD strategy must clearly demonstrate that the CP concept can be expanded to more directly address the needs of developing countries as well as the needs of developed nations in a green economy.
Warwick is a Germany-based bass and guitars manufacturer company. Warwick basses were originally a premium brand offering a small range of models built from high quality and exotic tonewoods. The company also produces Valve and FET amplifiers, speaker cabinets, bass guitar strings, and is the division of the Framus trademark. Their headquarters and custom shops are located in Markneukirchen, Shanghai, and Nashville.
The company's history began in Pretzfeld / Upper Franconia, where Hans-Peter Wilfer, at just 24 years old, and 2 luthiers founded Warwick on 13 September 1982. He learned his craft from his father, Fred Andreas Wilfer, who in the 50's, 60's and 70's built FRAMUS instruments, reaching worldwide reputation.
The company grew steadily, so that by 1995 the production was moved to Markneukirchen Saxony. With rebuilding the company, H.P. Wilfer could realize his dream, namely the synthesis of craftsmanship and modern technology. This unique combination of craftsmanship and technology has enabled Warwick to reach the goal of the building the perfect instrument. From the initial offering of three models in the early years, there have been several product lines developed – with more than forty different bass guitars and a wide range of bass amps, cabinets and many accessories. This success not only highlights over 50- years of tradition in instrument building for the Wilfer Family;
Along with this responsibility, Warwick see the preservation of the environment as na important part of our corporate policy. Our efforts apply to the continuous improvementof environmental performance. Starting with a use of renewable energy at a very high level, it is the main objective of Warwick to reach an energy balance with na even lower environmental impact by 2015. Through further modernization of production lines, highly efficient use of energy and comprehensive utilization of alternative energy, this balance can be met.
In 1994, Warwick began to invest in ecological and energy saving measures with na ingenious concept to gradually modernized some parts of the company. An idea of how much these measures save energy and protect the environment, as well as what we are prepared to pay and can cost in the near future, will be listed below in a table with concrete numbers of all investments in this field. Warwick has nothing to hide and puts the cards on the table. The investment volume that Warwick has made in the field of ecology and energy saving measures is likely to be relatively high in both consideration of other companies operating in the sector and Other Companies.
Warwick does not shy away from that comparison and will continue to demonstrate the production of the highest quality instruments at the highest environmental standards. In just the past few years, Warwick invested over 6.7 million euros for environmental and energy saving measures, even with the given current economic uncertainty.
Nevertheless, the investments will pay off in the medium to long term, and indeed in two ways: from an economic perspective and for the benefit of the environment. This results in a win-win situation in which everyone benefits.
Ecological awareness is not an end in itself for Warwick, but is based on the basis of sound economic calculation. Since 1995 Warwick has committed over 5.7 Million euros in improving energy efficiency investments, which have gradually reduced the energy consumption in the company and help that the company will be independent in the long run on fossil fuels, oil and gas. In this context, the company has been associated with a lot of effort in terms of building protection, insulation and mechanical engineering to modern standards.
Having ultimately benefited the environment and the people of Warwick, significant energy savings, reduced emissions, reduced noise pollution, improvements in occupational safety, etc. were a useful side effect of the investments made. All these measures were carried in the spirit of an ecologically correct Occurrence of Warwick.
For this reason, Warwick will continue to invest through consistent ecological measures in the future. In the following comments, you learn all the details about the measures already taken and any further measures envisaged by Warwick in terms of energy saving anD environmental protection.
The environmental management system covers all parts of the production, storage, distribution and administration. It is headed by CEO Hans-Peter Wilfer personally. The manager of each areas of law as well as statutory and autonomous operation tests are specified in the Environmental Manual Internal audits of the environmental management system is adopted annually, whether the proposed regulations have been met for environmental management including the requirements of the International Standard.
There is an individual responsible for the meantime check into how the tasks have been fulfilled, and provide information to the management. The environmental manual is appointed by the executive board, the processes themselves responsible for the following areas.
- Environmental Manager
- Environment Committee
- Waste Management Officer
- Pollution Control Officer
- Responsible for hazardous
- Specialist for occupational safety
- Health and safety committee
- Safety Officer
- Fire Prevention Officer
These are included in the annual evaluation of the objectives achieved and are responsible for the update of the manual in the next reporting period.
Main elements of the environmental management system and reference to related documents.
The Environmental Handbook for each of the past few years following codes are documented and analyzed:
- Energy consumption (electricity, wood, natural gas)
- Fuels (petrol and diesel)
The CO2 emissions from the energy balances are calculated annually and assessed with regard to investment efficiency.
The environmental handbook includes documents and records, which are considered necessary to ensure referring to their significant environmental aspects of effective planning, operation and control of processes.
The environmental performance based on the core indicators of the key areas of EMAS III - Regulation.
As a company that has worked for decades with the raw wood, you develop a special relationship with this product from nature. Unlike other materials, such as steel or plastic, wood is a living material, which carries a huge potential. As we experience every day, such as a handsome bass from a raw piece of wood which you can elicit wonderful sounds, all participants produced a sensitivity to this natural resource. Thousands of Warwick basses have already left, and each of them is unique, as unique as the piece of wood in the rough, from which it was built.
From this respect for the raw wood, responsible use of natural wood resources is a matter of course for Warwick. This starts with the procurement of wood, carried out exclusively by reputable timber merchants, continues with waste-avoiding processing, and ends with a meaningful utilization of wood residues for heating. As to what each action looks like in detail, refer to the following chapters.
The manufacture of stringed instruments has strong elements of traditional practice, particularly in the choice of materials from which the instruments are made. While man-made materials have been used in successful instruments, they are overwhelmingly made of wood. The preferred species include Sitka Spruce, Mahogany, Rosewood and Maple. Furthermore, the grade of materials used for instruments is extremely high, only one step below that used for the loadcarrying structures of aircraft. The ideal piece of wood is straight-grained and without imperfections such as knots, checks or discoloration. The growth rings should be close together, so slow-growing trees are preferred. The result is that trees yielding instrument-quality wood have been heavily logged and are becoming very scarce. This is reflected in the rising prices of instrument grade wood. At this writing, a master-grade top blank for a single acoustic guitar can cost up to $300. The retail value of guitars sold in the US is approaching $1 billion per year, so the demand for materials is not going to ease soon. Clearly, the industry must change its practices if it is to sustain production. Several fundamental changes are required. One is the strong prejudice against laminated materials; high grade plywood exhibits structural properties and uniformity that would make it ideal for instrument manufacture, but its use is limited to student grade instruments. The Convention on International Trade and Endangered Species (CITES) outlines the terms under which traditional species can be legally and sustainably harvested, but it limits production volumes and the temptation to skirt the regulations is strong. Thus, another required change is to switch to fast-growing species. Finally, manufacturing processes must be modified and life cycle management procedures should be implemented to allow for the effective and efficient use of smaller, younger trees.
Wood is like nothing else and has a decisive influence on the quality of the finished instrument. Look and sound properties are mainly determined by the wood combinations used. In addition to the bass from the standard range Warwick also offers the opportunity to have the in-house Custom Shop make an individual bass with the wood of choice. To allow the customer the greatest possible freedom of choice in the design of their bass, Warwick offers a variety of interesting woods from all over the world. Since these woods are often rare tropical woods, Warwick takes strict care that none of the wood is from endangered forests growing areas, but only comes from certified forest regions.
To ensure a correct 100% wood procurement, Warwick applies several self-imposed guidelines:
- Purchase exclusively regulated timber with CITES permit - The Washington Convention (CITES) controls on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora. Warwick buys principle a regulated only woods that come from legal sources and have a CITES permit.
- Wood respect only of FSC and PEFC certified suppliers - The two international certification schemes FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) and PEFC (Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes) include guidelines to ensure sustainable forest management while ensuring ecological, economic and social standards. Wood suppliers who are committed to ensure that certification schemes so that they observed in the degradation of the wood the strict FSC and PEFC requirements. Including innovations include the fundamental failure of clearcuts, the careful use of machinery, the respect of protected habitats and protected areas and many more. Warwick gets its timber only from reputable dealers that have this seal of approval and commit to a regular check.
- No relation of strains obtained by Overexploitation deforestation were - The problem with rare unique tropical woods is often that a single type deep in the jungle is in the midst of other tree species. Unscrupulous timber merchant, which definitely exist, grub ruthlessly - cutting a path to the type of tree sought, creating a variety of other trees pointlessly falling victim to deforestation. This radical and reckless approach is not acceptable, and we must help in any way! The timber merchant, from whom we source our rare tropical timber must guarantee that the recovery is not done by in ruthless exploitive nature.
As exemples, Warwick takes its Mahogany-Pommele inventory from Gabon, West Africa, where the tree stands are to be found amidst the tropical rainforest in Ogooue Basin. With the removal of the tree, the surrounding vegetation is not destroyed, each log is individually flown by helicopter from the forested area. In the event of wood coming from Southeast Asia, the Macassar Ebony Tree reserves are inland amid deepest jungle and on steep slopes, so that the use of machines is not possible and must be dismantled by hand. Despite the resulting higher cost of dismantling and the resulting high price for Warwick, this is eco-friendly timber.
- Respect of sensitive species - One of the Custom Shops Vavona Burl wood is, the attractive walnut finish of the Sequoia tree. Better known under the name `Redwood Tree ', these majestic redwoods are the tallest trees in the world. The giant redwood trees are only present in California and can be up to 4000 years old. Such trees are living history and may not be harvested under any circumstances, for any purpose whatsoever. No furniture, no interior and no bass in the world, is worth sacrificing these ancient giant trees. Of course we have respect for these trees worthy of protection and use material from ordinary redwood trees that are found in California in large numbers.
Careful treatment of timber resources, in addition to the environmental policy is also na economic component. The raw wood is expensive. Therefore Warwick is keen to exploit the processing of timber to the optimum raw material and reduce the board to a minimum.
The utilization of professional Rohholzer starts with the first separation cut of logs and ends with the final Versagung in production. Through the purchase of modern machinery in the wood processing, waste was reduced to a bare minimum so that the optimum yield from each piece of valuable raw wood can be recovered. To this end, for example, a new Copy band saw was purchased which cuts the desired shapes from a block of wood with minimum waste.
A completely coherent concept of using wood ultimately includes a targeted leftover of waste generated in the production of wood. This will not be thrown away by Warwick, but serves for heating. Through an alternative heating with wood at Warwick, the demand for fossil fuels and gas oil is considerably reduced, which in addition to the economic benefit is also a benefit for the environment. The combustion of wood just as much carbon dioxide (CO2) is released as the tree absorbed during its growth phase. This value is significantly lower than that of fossil fuels.
To carry out the recycling of wood waste as effectively as possible, Warwick has purchased a powerful chips oven and a log boiler specifically for this purpose. These two systems provide a self-sufficient supply of heat for a factory area of around 13,000 square meters.
A fundamentally coherent and well thought out concept is needed that covers all areas of energy supply and energy consumption. Including measures for heat insulation and insulation to prevent the unnecesasry dissipation of precious energy.
Warwick, in collaboration with qualified professionals developed such a concept, which ncludes the following measures:
- Insulation and building insulation
- High-Efficiency heating systems
- Consistent use of renewable energies environment
- Modernization of equipment
The following are the various energy saving and modernization measures, that Warwick has already realized and will be implemented in the near future, to be explained in detail.
Before use a lot of money and effort modernizing existing heating systems, one should optimize the insulation of buildings and warehouses, otherwise you run the risk that money literally `heats up out of the window '. Critical points to buildings are mainly windows, roofs and walls without special heat protection insulation. The commonly used materials for constructing buildings of steel, concrete and glass have the property to be relatively good conductor of heat, so that no existing insulation, the heat in cold weather is quickly discharged from the inside out. On hot summer days it behaves exactly the opposite - with no existing insulation here, the heat can penetrate unhindered into the interior of the air conditioners and demand from increased power, which in turn has an increased power consumption. Similarly, in non-insulated heating pipes a lot of heat energy is lost. Therefore, an efficient thermal insulation of buildings to save heating energy in the last 20 years has significantly grown in importance, especially in view of the temporary introduction of relevant legal rules and regulations.
Aware of this, Warwick has invested highly in order to realize an entirely coherent concept for thermal insulation and building insulation on all sheds and buildings. For this holistic concept the insulation of all heating pipes in all areas of production is included.
As a last resort before the heating season 2011/12 the three remaining old Windows are replaced in the production hall / drying chambers against glazing. So that all windows will be replaced in production.
As part of the new office building at Warwick built in 2002 and 2003, the existing old building facade has been completely insulated and finished with a metal facade. In this context, all the windows were replaced, both in the offices and in the production áreas by modern aluminum Dammschutzfenster. Additionally, all of the free glass surfaces inside and outside blinds were installed to automatically close every evening at 19:00 and 20:00 clock, and at 6:00 and will open up again automatically. The investment costs for these measures amounted to 208,250 euros.
Until recently, much of the heating pipes in the Warwick-production facilities were still in an uninsulated state and thereby gave off a considerable amount of heat energy lost in the unused space. To change this situation radically in the years 2008 and 2009, all production areas had the heating pipes insulated, so there are no heat losses during transport of hot water. The investment costs for these measures amounted to 29,750 euros, which are well spent, given the recovered heat energy. Because of this reason, the investment will pay off in the medium term.
Until recently at Warwick, not all buildings were up to the highest standards. For this to be achieved as soon as possible, Warwick worked step by step in the systematic modernization of the missing buildings. In the years 2010 and 2011, extensive renovations were carried out in an old production hall area. There, the old buildings were demolished and a new hall was built, which corresponds to the current standard of building insulation. This hall was built with modern industrial space heating and a heat pump system with a heat output of 125 KW. In this heat pump system, the heat is recovered in ground collectors. In the summer months the Erdsondenfeld is cooling the new office building. The heat introduced into the soil that is stored as termal energy in the heating season are available. The heat pump works in a much larger figure of merit. This means that, for example, an amount of heat can be generated from 4 kWh of 1 kWh with an electric energy.
Analyzed by a thermal-response test and then evaluating the performance of this system in the construction work, it has been demonstrated that the extraction of heat in the winter and the balancing of heat in summer cooling of the soil, even with longterm operation over 25 years. Thus, these environmental energy sources are used sustainably.
After performing all these modernization measures, the last of the old buildings in Warwick were brought to the level of a modern manufacturing facility.
Environmental management approaches have become vast interest for companies with the focus on green production as well as supplier collaboration. A company that operates a valuable raw material wood, have to be committed to the responsible use of natural resources on earth. Organizations are faced with increasing pressure to engage in sustainable development and to integrate environmental and social dimensions into their traditional performance metrics. Prior research suggests that lean management and supply management are potentially important determinants of environmental performance and can be seen as capabilities that ease the adoption of environmental practices. Furthermore, incorporating innovation adoption ideas provides stay one step ahead of your competitors.
Unlike most musical instrument makers, the Warwick company is acting proactively, not only with the benefit of cost reduction, but with the systemic thought of collaboration with nature and the environment, generating a positive image to society and consumers, generating a form of ''green'' marketing necessary for today's companies.
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1. Mestre em Engenharia de Produção (UFSM). Universidade Federal de Santa Maria – UFSM. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org