Espacios. Vol. 36 (Nº 05) Año 2015. Pág. 4
Filipe Molinar MACHADO 1; Janis Elisa RUPPENTHAL 2
Recibido: 12/11/14 • Aprobado: 21/01/2015
2. Background literature on innovation and implications for public services
3. Data sources and empirical strategy
4. Results and Discussion
The society is undergoing social and economic changes that affect all sectors, including the public sector must adapt to the new reality. This scenario requires a new profile public service, focused on the satisfaction of its users, the search for effective results (Gallouj & Zanfei, 2013; Harvey, Crisskelcher & Paulinejas, 2010; Salge & Vera, 2012; Cavalcante, Kesting & Ulhoi, 2011; Aschhoff & Sofka, 2009) and able to respond with speed and quality to this new user. The Brazilian government, to compensate for the lack of mechanisms for evaluating the public service to society through the internet, the Project Indicators and Metrics for the Evaluation of e-services data, which was coordinated by the Ministry of Planning, budget and Management of Brazil (Brazil, 2007).
Aiming to discuss possible changes in paradigms and innovative processes in the public sector was used in this article the case of services provided by the General Institute of Expertise - GIE of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, on the use of new technologies for issuing reports electronics expert.
In the provision of forensic services, expert work are demanded by external users to the GIE, in which, after the entry of external information in the protocol of forensic examinations and use the formatter reports system, the expert report, completed in electronic and digital signature, is sent through the external user, who uses it in police investigations and judicial processes to perform their legal duties. The need for greater speed and efficiency of delivery of forensic services has resulted in the migration of systems enabling external users to receive service via the Internet, making it part of the electronic government.
Based on the guidelines suggested by the Oslo Manual (2005) and the Project Indicators and Metrics for Evaluation E-services (Brazil, 2007), this paper aims to answer how the innovation of electronics emission report was perceived by the area public servers forensics (internal users)? The aim was to analyze how the servers realize the innovation of the electronic report system in an institution of forensic utilities. Specifically it sought to construct a survey instrument based on the Oslo Manual and the evaluation indicators of e-services, to analyze the perception of internal users as the use of the new system. This research is relevant considering that studies of public services offered to society by using information technology, enable understanding of the innovative process that affect politics of countries. Also, it might help to write the manuals on collection and interpretation of data technological innovation in services, enriching academic research.
To Nightingale and Coad (2014), Kindström, Kowalkowski and Sandberg (2013) and Trott (2012), studies of innovation are partial, since they are geared almost exclusively to the analysis of this phenomenon in firms regulated by the market. In these studies, the public sector is treated as a creator of regulatory legal framework, as funder of innovation activities, as a consumer of innovative products generated by the private sector or producers of complementary goods.
Authors like Peres (2014), Gallouj and Zanfei (2013), Trott (2012) and OECD (2005) report that innovation is seen as a process and not as a result. Therefore, rather than forms of innovation, research interest is in the ways or models of innovation. Models of innovation corroborated by these authors, also expressed in the Oslo Manual (2005), indicates four types of innovation: (1) product innovation through the introduction of a good or new or significantly improved service in relation to their characteristics or intended uses; (2) process innovation, the implementation of a method of production or new or significantly improved distribution, including significant changes in techniques, equipment and / or software; (3) organizational innovation, the implementation of a new organizational method in business practices of the company, the organization of their workplace or in their external relations; (4) marketing innovation, the implementation of a new marketing method with significant changes in the design of the product or its packaging.
As Battisti, Rubalcaba and Windrum (2014), Gallouj and Zanfei (2013), the different approaches to innovation in services are recent and have provided a debate in the literature about this process. But all have a common theme of intangibility and simultaneous growth, emphasizing the contribution of this sector to the economic growth and development. Still, the theoretical debate on innovation in services permeates a discussion about whether organizations in the service sector actually innovate and what are their specificities in approaches.
The services sector, according to Kubota (2009), was marginalized in studies in economics in Brazil and other countries. This marginalization can be seen in studies of Kindström, Kowalkowski and Sandberg (2013) and Gallouj and Zanfei (2013) that highlight the underestimation of the analytical services industry faces problems such as intangibility of the product; interactivity, which translates some form of customer participation in service production; difficulty of protecting innovation in the service, since there is not the establishment or exchange of property rights; and the difficulty of applying traditional definitions of concepts and measurer innovation, due to the diversity of services that are supported by information, knowledge or individual. These factors, plus the report in the Mustak (2014), Barretta and Busco (2011) and Oslo Manual (2005) that countries have little interest in research on services that are not market-oriented sector, seem to draw the causes of scarce publication of research innovation in public services.
The transformation in public policy, involving the processes and functions of government, is being conducted by the use of tools and applications of ICTs. E-government is developing not only to provide services for the citizen, but also to meet the purposes of public sector efficiency, improving transparency and accountability of government functions and enabling cost savings in administration United Nations (2008). As described Birchenhall and Windrum (2014) and Green, Pyka and Schön (2013), ICTs are changing the way government does "business" for the population, making e-government in the lever evolution of governments.
Speklé and Verbeeten (2014), Snead and Wright (2014), OECD (2003) and UN/ASPS (2002) point out that the meaning given to "electronic government" or "e-gov" is the digital qualifiers, a government digitally by tools, media, procedures and the use of technology to increase access and improve the delivery of government services to citizens, suppliers and skilled servers.
In Brazil, there are various experiences and reports of successful projects implemented in the forensic field of public safety using e-gov. Among these, we mention the integrated command and control centers; biometric identification; the schedule for preparation of identity cards; the collection and validation of evidence in forensic investigation.
As highlighted Windrum (2014) and Arduini and Zanfei (2013), e-government is part of the priority agenda of governments aimed at improving and expanding access to services provided to citizens, improving internal management and transparency and social control over their actions.
To achieve this alignment and aiming to compensate for the lack of evaluation initiatives or mechanisms to measure performance in terms of convenience for society, developed the Project Indicators and Metrics for Evaluation E-services by the Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management, which is presented as a set of indicators for the assessment of convenience for the citizen services electronically, with 8 indicators convenience for citizens and 19 evaluation criteria.
The first indicator, maturity, expresses the extent to which the service is rendered totally and completely dematerialized. The second indicator, communicability, measures the responsiveness and openness of the state to influence citizens as well as the ability to offer help to facilitate access to information. Third, multiple access, reflects the scope of services to be made available in electronic channels other than the Internet. The fourth, accessibility, concerns the participation of disabled on the use of services and information on an unrestricted basis people. The fifth, availability checks when the service is available for user access. The sixth, ease of use, is the quality of interaction and navigation interface for access to the service. The seventh, reliability, reflects the quality of the system that allows the user to trust the service. The eighth, transparency: it is the responsibility for the efficient management of public resources, allowing greater control of society over the course of the service requested. Each indicator has a weight of 12.5 points, totaling 100 points, and the criteria are qualified and quantified from basic features established with their respective scales of valuation on your items and sub-items.
Among various forensic services available in the area of public safety, the expert report was established as the main piece of evidence and can be understood as the narrative discourse and the study result of examinations conducted over a criminalistics phenomenon, enabling the technical part for external users.
This criminalistics service expert report is required to GIE by external government agencies such as the judiciary, prosecutors, civil police, lawyers. Upon request, the servers (internal users) GIE analyze the request and perform the expert examination, recording their forensic findings in a system called General of Protocol Skills which constitutes a large database and generates a single number expert report for each request providing a platform for the formatter electronic reports. Thus, after the entry of the general information in the protocol and the use of electronic reports formatter, as shown in Fig. 1 the expert report (completed electronically and digitally signed) is sent to the requestor (external user), which uses police in their investigations and / or lawsuits.
The service electronic report was chosen as the object of this research to have spent recently by a process of innovation. As well as due to the impacts that this change causes the segments of society. Whether in government, the search for efficiency of its services; whether in institutions, which require the service efficiently to its legal existence and legal movement in their activities; to be citizens, they are benefited with the security services funded with tax collection.
Figure 1: Flow chart of the overall work prescribed for forensic activity
The service migration to electronic report materialize a new model of service delivery via the Internet, which is configured for specialized services to a specific audience, which changed the relationship of forensic services in the area of public safety with external users and prompted the realization of research that might set up technological innovation. For that this research used the Oslo Manual and the Project Evaluation Indicators of e-services.
According Yin (2013), this research can be classified by the exploratory case study. The distinctive topics for applying the case study method arise from at least two situations. First and the most important, the case study method is appropriate when your research addresses either a descriptive question or an explanatory question. Second, you may want to illuminate a particular situation, to get a close understanding of it. The case study method helps you to make direct observations and collect data in natural settings. Thus, this study aims to investigate how to set up the innovation brought by the change of the system that enables the service electronic report on the perception of internal users GIE who perform the service electronically regional coordinating skill of the Secretariat of Public Security of the state Rio Grande do Sul.
To examine how managers perceive innovation and servers Electronics issuing electronic report two stages of research were conducted. The first phase, conducted from February to July 2014, used a questionnaire to analyze the perception of innovation, from the perspective of the Oslo Manual Metrics and evaluation of electronic services of the Brazilian government (Brazil, 2007). On Monday, an interview with two key members was held in February 2014.
The first phase of the research involved a survey of perceptions of internal users that perform the service electronic report in ten regional coordinators of expertise of the State Department of Public Safety. The criterion was accessibility being validated questionnaires answered by 163 servers during the search. The second stage of research involved interviews allocated to sectors of the institution's information management servers to deepen the understanding of system usage.
The interview process methodology was as follows: (a) the interview procedure was initiated by a telephone, call or email. The interview reason and purpose of the research were discussed, the time and place for the interview is set; (b) were performed interviews face to face in the interviewee's office when the time comes. The interview was initiated with a short explanation of the topic. The interview was semi-structured; were pre-planned questions. Were all of the questions asked to the interviewee; (c) the researcher recorded the conversation throughout the interview. The interviewee was aware of this; (d) the interview team was range from 30 minutes to one hour. By combining the two approaches, quantitative and qualitative, called triangulation between methods, proposes to make the findings more easily understandable, aimed to contribute to validate the data and enrich the analysis.
Data processing was performed using two approaches: content analysis and statistical analysis. Data were analyzed according to the parameters proposed by the Oslo Manual Innovation and parameters for e-government services described in the theoretical framework of this article.
In content analysis, according to Bardin (2006) and Franco (1986), categorization is a sort operation of the constituent elements of a set by differentiation and then for reunification by gender (analogy), with the previously defined criteria. The criterion of semantic categorization can be when all issues have the same meaning are grouped in a construct with a title for this meaning. Furthermore, when the organization of the material follows directly from the hypothetical theoretical foundations, the system constructs is provided, and breaks down as best as possible the elements as they are encountered. This research constructs will be based on theoretical foundations of the Oslo Manual and project evaluation indicators of e-services.
The interviews will be analyzed through content analysis seeking to relate them to data "approach by object" of the 2nd and 3rd versions of the Oslo Manual. The qualitative analysis will be highlighted in each data, as this was addressed in the questionnaire, i.e., which item of the questionnaire corresponds to this data.
The constructs product innovation, process innovation, impact and innovation indicators will be presented in graphs with average points achieved in each construct (descriptive statistics). The characteristics of the respondents, the novelty of innovation and service studied will be analyzed through graphs with the mean of each construct according to each feature, still in the descriptive statistical analysis.
Marconi and Lakatos (2003) report that the scientific methods seeks a solution by trial (conjectures, hypotheses, theories) and debugging. Thus, for the realization of the hypothetical-deductive model, three hypotheses tests will be performed to measure the characteristics of respondents, innovation and service electronic report influenced the perception of the respondents in relation to the constructs of innovation. The fourth hypothesis test will investigate whether the constructs may be related positively. With the results of the analyzes mentioned above, it will be sought to investigate the relationship of the constructs can be expressed by a single equation regression (multiple regression analysis).
As a result, data on specific innovations, which, in this study we chose to base the data collection according to Annex I of the Oslo Manual (2005), which emphasizes the use of the object approach, where types are needed data that can be collected are descriptive, qualitative and quantitative information. The data outlined below are those where the information about the most significant innovation commercialized by the public organization during the survey period were collected. So the first part of the approach displays the description of the innovation, where all items were obtained through the use of interviews and questionnaires.
The questionnaire was made from the related object approach by the Oslo Manual and Evaluation Indicators of E-services data. The constructs innovation (product and process) and impacts were made from the 2nd and 3rd version of the Oslo Manual. The construct was made with indicators adapted to the design of indicators Evaluation of E-services. The constructs of innovation were presented as graphs with average points achieved for the first two, on a Likert scale of five points; and average percentages achieved in the last two constructs. According to Fig. 2, after statistical analysis of the questionnaire respondents, revealed this service electronic report corresponds to a process innovation.
Figure 2: Average scores for the constructs of innovation
As for the impacts construct – Fig. 3, the lowest percentage achieved by items that make up was 36% in item multiple access, demonstrating that technological innovation of service prioritizes security through external activation to the workplace, but this demonstrates that innovation through external access to the work environment can be perceived as a source of change, growth and effectiveness, according to the studies of Osborne & Brown (2013).
Figure 3: Average percentage of items to construct impacts
In the Fig. 4, the highest percentage achieved was the GIE reduces cost item, revealing one of the primary objectives of the public sector that the efficient allocation of resources in their operational activities. Moreover, followed by the first item, the item is obtained capacity increase, indicating that the productive systematic through the electronic report process was increased.
After descriptive statistics, four hypotheses were developed in order to analyze whether there was a statistically significant association between variables, involving the characteristics of respondents, innovation and service electronic report, beyond the constructs that shape innovation (innovation product, process innovation, and impact indicators). For hypothesis testing, the significance level was 10%. The analysis included analysis of variance (ANOVA N factors) for the first three hypotheses; for the fourth hypothesis, the Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression. The statistical software used was the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences – SPSS.
Figure 4: Average percentage of items for the construct indicators
The results using SPSS for the first three hypotheses showed that perceptions of the constructs are independent of the characteristics of respondents, the novelty of the innovation and the nature and deficiencies of the service, expressing similarity between them, which gives greater reliability to the findings of study.
The models found in the fourth hypothesis, expressed by Table 1, does not include all the constructs in a single equation, but such equations are used to monitor and measure the impact on the setting items and sub-items of service innovation.
innovation process = 1,381 + 0,910. product innovation
product innovation = 1,465 + 0,403. innovation process
innovation process = 1,308 + 0,816. innovation process + 0,006. impacts
impacts = 49,860 + 5,293. innovation process
impacts = 43,127 + 4,239. innovation process + 0,101. indicators
indicators = 38,126 + 0,510. impacts
Table 1: Models of possible linear regression
From Table 1, we highlight that future research may involve other constructs of innovation, other correlations with other constructs or formulation of hypotheses in order to obtain a model that it becomes a tool for more accurately monitoring and measuring impacts.
In general, the services evaluated had less than half the maximum score for each indicator set (12.5 points) performance. The average achieved by services evaluated of a total of 100 points was 72.62 points. The multiplicity of access indicator showed the worst performance, with performance of 4.5 points. The best performances were recorded in the transparency index, where the overall average reached 11.12 points.
The descriptions of the interviews reflect the unified prevailing thought of the respondents, where the answers are arranged sequentially as the 2nd and 3rd version of the Oslo Manual:
1 Description of major innovation: the public service in question is the supply and shipment of the electronic report, which, according to interviews, was conducted by means of printed report, including attachments such expert photographic work. The migration system for printed electronics enabled all the service was done via formatting award platform with subsequent shipment via internet. Thus, one can consider that the provision of this service has become an electronic service made possible by what is usually called "electronic government" in the category e-service.
2 Classification by type of innovation: the interviews reveal that the service studied an innovation is perceived as more focused on the process, being of secondary importance to product innovation, because both production costs as the system of delivery of forensic services are unified in the electronic report system.
3 New innovation: the interviews point out that the change of service of the printed report system for electronic report is presented as a novelty for forensic institutions of the country with regard to the work process and shipment to external users.
4 Nature of innovation: through interviews, nature can be classified as substantial technical innovation, with a view to new interface between internal and external users developed, even noting that it demands a higher performance protocol system and put in a bigger problem before the fragility of the plurality of access.
5. Expenses innovation: the perception of accounting expenditures to modernize the electronic report service is difficult to achieve, since by means of this system are made possible other forensic services. As highlighted by the Oslo Manual (2005), one can separate spending considering system design, software, equipment, training, and other that are linked to innovation, since this calculation spending could assist in evaluating innovation system as a whole or in the evaluation of innovation throughout the institution. This is a proposal to prepare the institutions for future research.
6 Impact of innovation: the Oslo Manual (2005) notes that as there are collection problems when trying to determine the impact of innovation on the industry level analysis, may be useful in collecting details significant level of innovation, thus allowing a closer detailed and accurate cost-benefit. However, this impact could be measured by the percentage of shipments of electronic report and printed report and the impact on the use of production factors, even considering that the forensic service is not sold. Therefore, the only item to be checked for impact is related to the use of production factors, ie, the use of manpower, material consumption and energy consumption. The interviews reveal economy with labor, materials and electricity consumption, in principle, by the abolition of the institution printers used exclusively for this service, especially in relation to the photographic forensic work attachments.
7 Life cycle of innovation: this item can be obtained specific project details, such as the time it took to reach the marketing stage, or the expected timing of cost recovery or return. Thus, considering the temporal aspect in the interviews, the time it took from the technical project preparation system until the service migrate to the new system of electronic formatting reports, it was revealed that the work for the design of the new system began in 2011, starting its run in 2012 in addition, the interviews revealed that the implementation of electronic report on the new system began in 2012 on the internet, after the completion of training to external users.
8 Benefits of innovation: the benefits of innovation shows that, when they have characteristic of public good, the cost of development is high and the cost of making it available to users is low. In this study, the benefits of the innovation may occur over a range of time periods, and these periods may be different from the spent. The interviews revealed about the automation of routine procedures, which reduced labor costs of the servers with deliveries, guidance and expert reports related to tasks, increasing the quality of service.
9 Sources of information for innovation: the interviews reveal the use of specialized services in the area of information technology, by aligning internal operations with the processing service suitable for the activity-end electronic report and its platform formatting of data reports. In the same line of the responses from the interviews, we highlight the studies Snead and Wright (2014) and de Reuver and Bouwman (2012), where they say that more theory-based efforts are needed to understand e-government as a field of study, where much of the research conducted occurs at an applied level in a specific situational context, which makes it difficult to aggregate and assess findings from a body of work for an e-government topic area.
10 Diffusion of innovation: through interviews, the survey reveals that the service studied classifies the concept of innovator in product and process technology because this implanted a classified as process and product service one recognized as new to care the market in which it operates.
11 Training: according to the interviews, there was concern for the institutional training of internal servers but lacking better adaptation of information technology and administrative expertise to receipt of forensic work primarily from external users, as to the operation of the system receiving electronic reports.
Through the analysis of interviews, questionnaires, research and external users with respect to the criteria of efficiency, efficacy and effectiveness in the public sector, it was possible to design the configuration model of technological innovation of the electronic report service, as shown in Fig. 5.
Figure 5: Example configuration of technological innovation in the electronic report service
The results of the qualitative and quantitative analyzes show that the innovation of public service electronic report is primarily focused on the process and product, not only by the average percentage achieved in the questionnaire, 86% and 64%, but also because for the system change service that enables the study - according to the interviews and the questionnaire items - was radically new use of technology, use of new equipment and new features, which characterizes the construct product innovation. Also, by means of interviews and questionnaires, it was found that there were new techniques of production, introduction of new technologies and new software, which characterizes innovation process. The performance in terms of convenience for society service was measured by evaluating e-services through the construct indicators, which showed an overall average of 72% of the total points measured for each of your items.
The efficiency can be observed in the results on productivity, quality, performance, lower costs for external service user and other benefits through the items investigated the impacts and indicators and interviews constructs. The effectiveness can be seen in the goals achieved by the institution offering the service via the Internet; savings for the institution with labor and materials reported in the interviews. The attendance of the criterion of effectiveness can be observed in research conducted by the institution with external service users revealed that 74% satisfaction with the service. Besides this item on effectiveness, other items should be surveyed to measure the social return on innovation of public services.
The innovation was perceived by servers in the use of this technology by using the internet and was related to the criteria of efficiency, efficacy and effectiveness - is related to model chan-link mentioned in the Oslo Manual (2005), in which innovation is seen in terms of interaction between market opportunities, as well as knowledge and capacity of organizations, and the research may interfere with various stages of innovation.
It is noticed that the use of this new technology broke paradigms and the results showed efficiency on productivity, quality, performance, reasonable cost savings to external service user among other benefits indicated in the results, with the results as found by Windrum (2013). Still on the effectiveness can be seen in the targets achieved as savings for the institution with labor and materials reported in the interviews. About the effectiveness criteria, the satisfaction with the service, which shows that there was rupture of paradigm in the expert report and consequent benefit and social returns through innovation of this public service by the internet service can be observed.
It is noteworthy that, while not having as main objective the construction of a research instrument of innovation in public services, the use of the questionnaire was perceived as a new instrument and analyzed as a methodology for analysis of services that can be replicated and expanded to generate possible adjustments and improvements.
Among the perceived limitations in this study highlights the difficulty of collecting questionnaires and the difficulty of getting interviews researched organ. Although these points are relevant it is noteworthy that the study advances in diagnosis in the use of information technology in public agency in particular the development of the survey instrument based on parameters established in the government document on e-service (Brazil, 2007). The creation of the survey instrument is an important result of this research and, as a suggestion for further research, we propose the extension of this study in other organs of the Brazilian public sector. It is also suggested that this research be applied in the area of private organizations in order to compare the advancement of new technologies in the public sector with the private sector.
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1 Universidade Federal de Santa Maria – UFSM/PPGEP, Brasil. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção - Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM/PPGEP), Brasil. Email: email@example.com
2 Universidade Federal de Santa Maria – UFSM/PPGEP, Brasil. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção - Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM/PPGEP), Brasil. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org