Espacios. Vol. 33 (3) 2012. Pág. 9

The implementation of the strategic planning and the influence of organizational culture

A implementação do planejamento estratégico e a influência da cultura organizacional

La aplicación del planeamiento estratégico y la influência de la cultura organizacional

Rolando Juan Soliz Estrada 1 y Greici Sarturi 2 y Lorenzo Sanfelice Frazzon 3

Recibido: 27-07-2011 - Aprobado: 10-10-2011


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The strategic planning is a management tool widely used by the organizations. To start a formulation and strategic implementation it is necessary to take into consideration aspects related to the organization culture, because just as the cultural aspects are influenced by the changing process, they also influence on the strategic decisions. This research has the aim to identify and examine the cultural aspects which contribute to the implementation of the Strategic Planning. To achieve the proposed objective it was used the case study methodology, of qualitative approach and descriptive literature. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews whose analysis was accomplished through methodology suggested by Moraes (2003). The cultural aspects were studied based on the Trompenaars (1994) patterns. The obtained results evidenced that the cultural aspects constitute an important study variable when it is intended to use a management tool. Concerning the Strategic Planning the extents Universalism versus Particularism; Collectivism versus Individualism; Diffuse versus Speciffic; Synchronous versus Sequential were the ones which revealed the biggest influence concerning the tool effectiveness.
Keywords: Strategic Planning, Organizational Culture, Strategic Management


O Planejamento Estratégico é uma ferramenta de gestão amplamente utilizada pelas organizações. Ao se iniciar um processo de formulação e implementação estratégica é necessário levar em conta os aspectos relacionados à cultura da organização, pois, da mesma forma que os aspectos culturais são influenciados pelo processo de mudanças, eles influenciam nas decisões estratégicas. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo identificar e analisar os aspectos culturais que contribuem para a implementação do Planejamento Estratégico. Para abarcar o objetivo proposto utilizou-se a metodologia de estudo de caso, de abordagem qualitativa e caráter descritivo. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, cuja análise foi realizada através da metodologia proposta por Moraes (2003). Os aspectos culturais foram estudados com base no modelo de Trompenaars (1994). Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que os aspectos culturais constituem uma importante variável de estudo quando se pretende implementar uma ferramenta de gestão. No caso do Planejamento Estratégico as dimensões Universalismo x Particularismo; Coletivismo x Individualismo; Difuso x Específico; Sincrônica x Seqüencial foram as que se revelaram de maior influencia para a eficácia da ferramenta.
Palavras-chave: Planejamento Estratégico, Cultura Organizacional, Gestão Estratégica

El Planeamiento Estratégico es una herramienta de gestión utilizada por las organizaciones. Al iniciar un proceso de formulación y implementación estratégica es necesario tener en cuenta los aspectos de la cultura de la organización, pues, de la misma manera que las cuestiones culturales son influenciadas por el proceso de cambios, ellas influyen en las decisiones estratégicas. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo identificar y analizar los aspectos culturales que contribuyen en la implementación del Planeamiento Estratégico. Para alcanzar los objetivos propuestos, se utilizó la metodología de estudio de caso con un enfoque cualitativo y descriptivo. Los datos fueron colectados a través de entrevistas semi-estructuradas, cuyo análisis se realizó utilizando la metodología propuesta por Moraes (2003). Los aspectos culturales se estudiaron basados en el modelo de Trompenaars (1994). Los resultados mostraron que las cuestiones culturales son una variable importante para el estudio, cuando se desea implementar una herramienta de gestión y en el caso específico de la implementación del Planeamiento Estratégico las dimensiones que tienen la maior influência para la eficacia de la herramienta son: Universalista-Particularismo, Individualismo-Colectivismo; Difusa-Específica, Sincronica-Secuencial.
Palabras clave: Planeamiento Estratégico, Cultura Organizacional, Gestión Estratégica

1. Introduction

The socio-economic scenario, characterized by globalization of markets and cultural differences, requires business management tools that allow effective and proactive actions, facing the complex and uncertain environment in which they operate. Among these tools, the use of strategic planning is important.

The Strategic Planning represents a continuous process, which aims to reduce uncertainty in decision process, through of techniques that evaluate the actions and environment pressures, whether internal or external to the organization (DRUCKER, 1998). Through of the defining the mission, vision and strategic goals of the organization, this tool aims to "shape the business and products of a company, so they enable the targeted profits and growth" (KOTLER, 2000, p. 86).

Although recent research has found a positive relationship and statistically significant, between strategic planning and financial performance (TAPIN; et al, 2005), by itself this management tool does not produce significant changes in company, does not guarantee organizational success (ANSOFF et al, 1981). According to Kaplan and Norton (2001), only 10% of strategies formulated are implemented with successfully, demonstrating that the real problem is not in development or quality of the strategies, but in its implementation.

Ansoff and McDonnell (1993), corroborate, highlighting the difficulty of implementing the strategies and Strategic Planning, due to changes caused these elements in the organizational structure of the company. Regarding the strategy, this difficulty is linked to the traditional culture of the organization and its political processes and, for the planning, there is a conflict between the new operating activities and existing ones (ANSOFF; MCDONNELL, 1993).

So, in view of the influence that organizational culture has on the implementation of a Strategic Planning, this paper aims to analyze the influence of cultural aspects in the implementation of strategic planning and there by answer the following research question: How the cultural aspects influence in the implementation of Strategic Planning?

2. Theoretical basis

2.1 Strategic planning

The planning has as basic aspects the definition of organizational objectives and the choice of means to achieve them (STONER, FREEMAN, 1994). Its development allows the realization of effective action, resulting from management's ability to anticipate and prepare for changes that could affect the organizational objectives (MEGGINSON et al, 1986). This management tool provides the course and general direction of efforts and resources of the company, as well as, build commitment for implementation and gives the instrumental to recovery (ROSA, 2001).

The evolution of planning techniques and the change of emphasis, of financial planning or long term to a strategic posture, are linked to recognition of the interrelationship between the organization and its environment, whose demands and developments are being considered in the administrative . Thus, the Strategic Planning assumes the role of a management tool of the process of strategic management (MEIRELLES, GOLÇALVES, 2006).

Since the 50s is evident in a series of studies contemplating at the process of formulation and implemention strategy. Mintzberg, Ahlstrand and Lampel (2000) meet these strategic studies in ten schools of thought, which can be classified into three groups: prescriptive schools, descriptive schools and configurative school. The Prescriptive schools are concerned with how strategies should be formulated, rather than how they are effectively formulated. This group is formed by schools of Design, Planning and Placement. Descriptive Schools consider specific aspects of the process of formulating strategies, concerned mainly with how strategies are formulated. The schools that comprise this category are: Entrepreneurial School; Cognitive School, School of Learning, School of Power, Cultural School, Environmental School (MINTZBERG, et al, 2000). The school configurative understands the school setting. This school sees strategy as a process of transformation, in which, for change to occur, companies must move from one setting to another (MINTZBERG, et al, 2000).

Although the approaches are distinct from each other, in general it is observed as common characteristics, the direction of the efforts of the organization from internal and external environmental analysis, development of mission, vision and goals, as well as the formulation of strategies, implementation and control of the planning.

2.2 Organizational culture

Organizational culture refers to the set of behavioral elements (beliefs, rules, taboos, language) and materials (buildings, layout, processes, symbols) formed from the trend experienced by the organization. However, are the intangible elements that prevail, since the beliefs, taboos and dogmas create a common identity to the members, giving them a sense of belong and crystallizing in the form of mental models, which provide a statement of interpretation and adaptation of individuals in relation to the world (JOHANN, 2004).

The study of organizational culture has a multidisciplinary character, since it uses ideas from anthropology (identifying the differences between cultures, understanding of elements such as beliefs, rituals, language), Social Psychology (culture is understood as a product of continuous interaction between people), Sociology (consider the relationships between people and groups, and passively subjugated to rules and expectations set by others) and Administration (assumes that culture is the result of a complex process, which factors include tangible and non-material) (JOHANN, 2004).

According Paschini (2006), the foremost studies about the subject, dating from the 50's. However, it is only in the 80's that this began to have more attention of the managers, as another way to achieve results for organizations (CHANLAT, 2000). This interest is often attributed to the increase in the competitiveness of the Japanese, to the detriment of the production system in North America (FREITAS, 1991), the increasing internationalization of large corporations (MORGAN, 1996) and the changing patterns of authority, as evidenced by the lack confidence in the institutions and their representatives, well as the loss of loyalty and commitment of employees in relation to organizations, which demanded leadership with values and beliefs consistent with their (HELLER, 1985).

Authors such as Schein (2009), Hofstede (2003) and Trompenaars (1994), present models for the analysis of culture. For these authors, cultural events can be studied at levels where the most superficial represent the practices, actions and behaviors are visible to the outside observer, and the inner layer refers to values, assumptions and basic premises of the organizations.

The culture is present at all times, being an intrinsic element to individuals. For many actions, seemingly irrational, make sense, it is important to take a cultural perspective, that is, develop the ability to see the world through cultural lenses (SCHEIN, 2009). Thus, to the practices and transformations that the company now, they can be understood, it is necessary to know the internal logic of each cultural reality that is manifested through language, beliefs, values, rituals, legends and traditions (ALVES, 1997).

Culture is a dynamic phenomenon, created constantly by personal interactions, learning processes and influenced partly by leadership behaviors (SCHEIN, 2009). There is no a correct culture, since this phenomenon does not occur in isolation, but depends on your relationship with the ambient in which it entered. Although conceptually abstract, the culture presents concrete has concretes behavioral consequences, while guides and constrains the behavior of individuals in a group through shared norms and assumed (SCHEIN, 2009).

3. Methodology

The decision for the research approach used has implications practical, empirical and technical (GÜNTER, 2006). This study characterizes for being a case study, qualitative and descriptive.

The search was conducted in the company CVI (Vontobel Investment Company), active in the beverage industry, located in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul The choice by the company was made intentionally and for convenience, because this criterion allows the selection of elements that are available and able to provide the information necessary to perform the research (HAIR et al, 2005).

The subjects object of the analysis corresponds to six managers, indicated by the company. We chose to interview the managers because they are directly responsible for implementing the Strategic Planning.

To collect the data was used literature analyze, documental analyze, and application of semi-structured interviews. The documentary analysis was conducted through brochures, newspapers and documents that allowed to describe the company's history. The literature review came from books and articles published in journals and events, which gave support to the theoretical.

However, the main source for data collection technique was semi-structured interview. The interviews were administered individually, lasting an average of thirty-five minutes and formulated based on the seven cultural dimensions proposed by Trompenaars (1994). All interviews were taped, transcribed and analyzed, based on textual analysis technique proposed by Moraes (2003).

The cycle of analysis was performed in three steps: 1. Dismantling or unitarization texts: the texts produced from the interview transcript were fragmented and deconstructed in order to create units of analysis. 2. Establishment of relations: it involves the construction of relations between units. 3. Capturing the new emerging: the last stage of textual analysis corresponds to the communication of the new understanding of the phenomenon, as well as his criticism and validation.

In this research, we chose to descriptive texts, which remain closer to the original corpus, stating the categories and subcategories. To validate the use is made quotations from the texts analyzed, which allow a more accurate picture of the phenomena studied (MORAES, 2003).

4. Results

4.1 Cultural dimensions

Based on the methodology of qualitative analysis, proposed by Moraes (2003), the data collected to analyze the cultural aspects that influence the strategic planning, took into account the dimensions related to relationships, the nature and time, proposed by Trompenaars (1994).

As for relationships, there are five value orientations that have great influence in how the cultures negotiate, manage and find answers to moral dilemmas. The relative position of the individual along such dimensions and beliefs guide their actions in life. The five guidelines are: Universalism x Particularism, Collectivism x Individualism; Neutral x Affect; Diffuse x Specific Conquest x Assignment.

As to time there are two orientations, namely: synchronous x sequential; Oriented past, present or future.

The cultural orientation on the nature corresponds to the dichotomy: Directed internally x directed externally.

4.1.1 Universalism versus Particularism

The first dimension refers to the orientation universalism versus particularism, defining how we judge people's behaviors.

Cultures of universal behavior are based on rules, under which all people should be treated equally.

In cultures of particularistic orientation is emphasized the good relationship between the parties, and people tend to keep their word, especially by the consideration that nourish each other. Interpersonal relationships tend to be informal and searches for "justice to treat all cases according to their special merits" (TROMPENAARS, 1994, p. 47).

Analysis of the interviews:

The company has a plan for jobs and wages well structured, where the employee falls within a level, according to your function. There are two forms of growth: horizontal growth, which occurs within the function, and vertical growth, where the employee exchange function. To measure performance and progress of the employee, the organization uses performance assessment, which is held with your boss and peers. In order to maintain impartiality, all evaluations are made by committee. Employees receive a remuneration fixed and a variable that depends on the performance of your department and company as a whole.

The fact that the company pay the employee based on job descriptions and wages suggests a cultural universal. However, there is a predominance of particularistic orientation, since the criteria for reward takes into account some exceptions.

The second category of analysis relates to the general rules of the organization. Although there are rules that the company will not give up, as the quality of their products and services, sustainable growth and without strain on the environment and the satisfaction of their partners, most often the organization adopts a flexible approach, which allows trading of some rules, aimed at their growth. This flexibility suggests a cultural orientation more particularistic.

The third factor in the identification of this cultural orientation, corresponds to the way the organization deals with its customers and suppliers. Overall, the company uses contracts to negotiate. However, evidence of a relationship of partnership and commitment between the parties, that give sustainability to the organization's business. This stance characterizes a cultural orientation that combines the particularism to universalism, and the predominance of particularism, since there are exceptions.

The final category of analysis, this dimension relates to how the procedures and relations occur in the internal environment of the company. Perceives a visible preference and prevalence of informality in the workplace.

Influence on Strategic Planning

In this cultural dimension, the aspects that were more relevant to the implementation of the Strategic Planning correspond to a flexible stance in relation to the rules and informal atmosphere of the organization, since both streamline the process and allows the implementation of changes with greater ease.

4.1.2 Individualism versus Collectivism

The second dimension refers to the relationships and rules, is "the conflict between what one wants from us as individual and group interests to which we belong" (TROMPENAARS, 1994, p. 48).

The individualistic cultures have an orientation to self. Generally, organizations with this cultural orientation have a very fast decision-making process, where a representative has full powers for decision making. People cooperate because of some particular interest that is at stake.

Analysis of the interviews:

The first category discussed how the organization pays its employees and initiatives which are considered more important (individual or collective). As described in the dimension universalism x particularism, employees receive a remuneration fixed and a variable, this depends on the performance of your department and company as a whole. Although individual performance is considered of great importance to the organization, the fact that the company adopt a variable remuneration linked to performance of the department, not just the individual, suggests a cultural orientation more collectivist.

As for the decision making process, there are levels of decision, ie, have the day-to-day decision, or operational, that can be taken at the level of management responsible for the area. Other decisions involve more than one sector, being decided by the managers of these areas. There are also decisions that involve the organization as a whole. For this level there is a management committee that counts, also with counselors internal, external and stakeholders. In general, the organization is based on consensus, where decisions are discussed in a democratic way. This attitude confirms the cultural orientation predominantly collectivist.

The last category of analysis identified what reasons led employees to cooperate in the work environment of the organization. The managers interviewed believe that employees cooperate due to the admiration they have by the company and, above all, on account of it is integrated as part of a family. These characteristics are common in collectivist cultures guidance.

Influence on Strategic Planning

The predominantly collectivist orientation positively influenced the implementation of the tool, since it promoted the involvement of officials at the organization's strategic objectives. This impairment is associated with employee participation in decision making, which helped to arouse feelings of integration and cooperation in the workplace. Moreover, the way the company pays its employees did not reveal a characteristic of great influence to the implementation of Strategic Planning.

The motivation, according to the interviewee, is associated with the leader's ability to motivate his team, and not only tied to financial rewards. In this regard, Schein (2009) presents four different roles for the leader, within the Organizational Culture: animator, at early stages of the company, creator of culture, supportive culture and change agent. In this case the leader is playing the role of change agent, since this is a person directly responsible for implementing the Strategic Planning.

4.1.3 Neutral versus Emotional

Cultures differ in how individuals express their emotions. You can put more emphasis on reason or emotion, and opting for one of these alternatives will depend on the cultural approach. Thus, culture can be neutral or affective.

In cultures with a high degree of affection the emotions are clearly demonstrated and feelings are perceived and expressed verbally and nonverbally, through smiles and gestures, "guys tied". (TROMPENAARS, 1994, p. 72).

Cultures affectively neutral keeps his feelings controlled and repressed, so that these can not be visibly perceived. Individuals who share this cultural approach tend to consider feelings like anger, delight or intensity at work as "non-professional" and physical contact, gestures or facial expressions are often strong taboo.

Analysis of the interviews:

In the company studied, we find a cultural approach predominantly affective, in which employees express their feelings and opinions clearly. Some passages of the respondents agree with this perspective.

Influence on Strategic Planning

The fact that the company has a predominantly affective orientation, whose sentiments are clearly perceived and expressed by its members, was not regarded by the respondents, an aspect that directly impact the implementation of Strategic Planning.

4.1.4 Specific versus Diffuse

The cultures of the specific approach are characterized by objectivity and transparency. In such cultures, work and private life are clearly separated, and management is the achievement of goals associated with rewards (TROMPENAARS, 1994).

Moreover, in cultures diffuse everything is related to everything that is "all areas of life and all levels of personality tends to permeate the other"(TROMPENAARS, 1994, p. 74). This approach cultural tends to use rodeos and evasive ways of communication. The instructions are passed during ambiguous and vague, allowing misunderstandings and erroneous trial of the individual. (TROMPENAARS, 1994).

Analysis of the interviews:

In relation to forms of communication used, it is observed that the organization values transparency, where information and instructions are communicated clearly and directly. There are various channels for this communication flow, such as email, bulletin boards, suggestion box, meetings and "Squeak newsletter. The company has a great concern to convey their goals, strategies and developments. For this, all employees have access to information and performance indicators. This posture, the company reveals a specific orientation.

However, when questioned about their relationships, that is, as is the separation between work life and personal, cultural orientation is predominantly diffuse, although the fact of bringing personal issues with professionals is very linked to the personality of each individual. In general, in the indoor environment, employees are concerned about the private lives of his colleagues.

Influence on Strategic Planning

The clear and objective manner with which the company communicates positively influenced the implementation of the Strategic Planning. This influence is due to the fact that people need to understand the process so that it develops, as explained by VI Interviewed: "We have to have the understanding and participation by all because if you do not have the understanding, is the individual, either collectively, we can not evolve in the Strategic Planning. "

Moreover, the fact that the company has a diffuse orientation, as for their interpersonal relationships, may influence in two ways the Strategic Planning: the first is a positive influence, given that the closeness of relationships that generates commitment of employees engage themselves more easily to the purposes and goals of the organization. The second influence can hinder the implementation, for, because of this proximity, there may be a misunderstanding on the part of the subordinate, which can affect how it perceives its obligations, as exemplified by Interviewee III: "For example, very close to the coordinator of staff, then he does not have a limit. The staff thinks is the right to charge something sometimes ... Because of this close relationship, it is difficult to charge the person.”

4.1.5 Conquest versus Attribution

This dimension refers to dichotomy between Conquest versus Attribution, that define how cultures confer status.

In cultures based on conquest, the authority is justified by the knowledge possessed by the individual and their technical skills. In this type of cultural approach, respect for the top, of the hierarchy is based on the effectiveness of their work, and senior managers have different age and sex.

Generally, the cultures of the attribution status is independent of specific task or function. Decisions can be challenged only by persons of higher authority and most senior managers are men of middle age, qualified for its history in the organization.

Analysis of the interviews:

For the concession of status, the organization is based on his plan for jobs and wages that the employee can grow horizontally or vertically. For this growth, we use the performance evaluation as a tool to measure the development employee. This attitude reflects an organization's orientation to the conquest, where the employee grows due his job performance.

For the component in question, the respondents answered that way the decisions can be challenged. They were unanimous in saying that decisions are challenged on the basis of technical and functional aspects. The interviewee II emphasizes this issue, as can be seen in the following passage: "Because the worst thing there is you do something because someone wants. Not that it is necessary or that it is functional or technical. No, but I want it that way. No, but technically not possible. But I want! I've never faced this situation here. "

Influence on Strategic Planning

The direction predominantly focused on the attribution not matched by a factor of direct influence to implement the Strategic Plan.

4.1.6 Sequential x synchronic

The way organizations think in time represents an important dimension in how they organize their experience and is associated with how to plan, prepare and coordinate their activities.

The time can be read sequentially, ie a series of consecutive events, or as synchronous, in which past, present and future are interrelated, so that ideas about the future and memories of the past shape their actions in the present.

For cultures of sequential thinking, everything has its time and place, the paths are predetermined, with set times for completion of each stage and people tend to follow rigid schedules, performing an activity at a time. The changes, or turbulence, in that sequence, are capable of generating uncertainty (TROMPENAARS, 1994, p. 112-113). The time monocrônico control behavior, which facilitates the coordination of activities and management of large systems (SCHEIN, 2009, p. 144).

In synchronous cultures, people come with several activities in parallel, its focus is on the final goal and the steps are interchangeable (TROMPENAARS, 1994). This cultural orientation is "the most effective way to build relationships and solve complex problems in which information is widely dispersed and highly interactive, so that all channels have to be always open" (SCHEIN, 2009, p. 144).

This cultural dimension also influences the quality of relationships within the organization. While crops arranged in sequence tend to view relationships as more instrumental, focusing mainly on increasing revenue and profit for each part of the company, synchronous cultures are more oriented to collectivism and usually more particularistic in valuing people.

"Although our ideas about past, present and future are imperfect, they strongly influence our thinking and these times appear subjective, always in our judgments and our decisions " (TROMPENAARS, 1994, p. 111).

Analysis of the interviews:

The first category of analysis refers to the dichotomy x time relationships. To this end, respondents were asked what the main requirements of the organization, whether it was demand for punctuality or relationships were considered important. For them, both aspects are important.

Although this analytical category suggests a balance between cultural orientation and synchronous sequential, the fact that punctuality is not something rigid tends to favor the synchronic cultural orientation.

It is worth noting that it was with the implementation of the Strategic Planning that punctuality has become embedded, more forcefully, in the processes of the organization. The second category of analysis, this cultural dimension, corresponds to how tasks are performed, ie a single activity at a time, or several activities at once. The orientation of the organization is predominantly synchronic, because usually perform several tasks in parallel.

The dichotomy between rigidity and flexibility are the third category used to analyze this dimension. Although the organization uses a defined methodology (Estrada Model) for the preparation of its Strategic Plan, its implementation is focused on the ultimate goals, resulting in a flexible approach, in which the organization allows changes and adjustments during the process. This attitude is characteristic of synchronic orientation.

The last category of analysis raises issues pertinent to the importance that the company gives the past, present and future. Again, the company shows approach predominantly synchronic, because combines the three times in the process of formulating the Strategic Plan, ie, it analyzes the past and present indicators and, from your bookmarks, makes a projection for the scenarios in coming five years.

Influence on Strategic Planning

The dimension relating to time corresponds to one of the dimensions that most affect the implementation of the Strategic Plan, especially by the fact influence how it will perform the tasks, as well as determining the relationships within the organization. The synchronic orientation requires a tight integration between the areas. For both, there was a change in company structure, which now use an organizational structure in a matrix form, which tends to provide more dynamism and speed in performing tasks.

4.1.7 Directed Internally versus Directed Externally

The seventh dimension considered for the study of culture corresponds to the relationship between individuals and their environment. The guidelines in relation to nature can be classified as "internally oriented" and "externally oriented" and has much to do with the way people lead their lives and manage the business.

The internally oriented cultures seek to dominate nature, where success is identified as control over external circumstances. Social relations are objective and the staff are paid according to the complexity and difficulty of his position as well as the quality and efficiency with which they perform their tasks.

Cultures externally directed believe that man is part of nature, and should submit to her. In this type of culture is important to adapt to the environment, the search for competitive advantage. We adopt a flexible stance, harmony and hospitality, in which "the feedback can change the overall direction of the company" (TROMPENAARS, 1994, p. 141). Companies with this cultural orientation feel more comfortable with the environmental changes, considering the crisis as an opportunity to change.

Analysis of the interviews:

Currently, according to the managers interviewed, the company has a proactive stance towards the environment. She is constantly innovating, concerned with the launch of new products that will maintain its leadership position in the market, as well as ensuring that the needs and expectations of customers are met.

Given the dynamic environment in which organizations are embedded, the way the company behaves and deals with adversity and environmental changes also reflect its orientation in relation to nature. In the case in study, the company see the environmental changes and crises in the sector as an opportunity for improvement and learning.

From the analysis of the interviews, it was observed that the organization
reconciles the direction internal with external direction, because, although, even though I try to control their environment through a proactive approach (characteristic common to direct internal), it is also flexible and adapt to environmental changes and nuances (characteristic related to direct foreign).

Influence on Strategic Planning

Regarding implementation of the Strategic Planning, this cultural dimension was more influenced by the implementation of the tool that effectively influence the implementation process.

Before the adoption of planning as a management tool, the company had a reactive posture, in which decisions were taken from discussions about events and past results. The tool has provided a cultural change.

5. Conclusions

Strategic planning is a tool that aims to improve organizational performance by defining vision, mission, environmental analysis and determination of objectives and strategies.

Because of the need to obtain information about the culture of the organization that make possible to increase the effectiveness of this tool, this research aimed to describe and analyze the cultural aspects that influence the implementation of Strategic Planning. As a result we can infer the following conclusions:

The dimension Particularism x Universalism, the company revealed a predominance of particularistic characteristics, evidenced mainly by the exceptions allowed the rules and informal working environment. This cultural orientation is to feature the company's flexible approach, a factor that contributed to the changes needed to achieve these goals, to be conducted. The particularist orientation, in the case studied, showed a trend toward a reduction of resistance, making the process of implementation of the Strategic Planning faster, more dynamic and effective.

  • The Collectivism x Individualism is the second dimension of cultural analysis, for which the company has demonstrated a collectivist orientation. This dimension has influenced positively the implementation of the Strategic Planning, because promoted the involvement of employees with the vision and strategic objectives of the organization. The employee's participation in decision-making unit of analysis corresponds to the most influential of the cultural dimension, since it was considered the decisive factor that had the commitment and collaboration of others to achieve the objectives of the company. In addition to participating in decision making, it should consider the importance of the figure of the leader to motivate and union teams. This orientation tends to reduce the risk of rejection to the implementation of the tool and, just like the x dimension Universalism Particularism ensures speed and efficiency to the process.

For dimension Neutral x Affective organization presented a cultural orientation predominantly affective. Although the level of affection varies depending on the area and the profile of the employee, in general people tend to express their feelings in a clear and warm. This aspect is not accounted for influence in the implementation of Strategic Planning.

For the analysis of the dimension Specific x Diffuse was used as analytical categories: a) the communication process and b) how occurs as the separation between work life and personal.

In the first unit of analysis, the company revealed a specific orientation, because use a clear and direct language. This characteristic has positively influenced because allows the understanding of the process and therefore reduces the anxiety arising from the change caused by the tool.

The second unit showed an attitude Diffuse. This unit of analysis in two ways influenced the implementation of Strategic Planning. The first was a positive, because the closeness of relationships has generated commitment of employees who have engaged with more ease to the purposes and goals of the organization. The second was negative way, because this relationships, creates bonds of friendship, that may hinder recovery.

For dichotomy Conquest x Attribution, the organization presented an orientation to the conquest, in which the employee status and receive amounts based on their accomplishments within the company. This orientation has not demonstrated a direct influence in the implementation of Strategic Planning.

The Sequential x Synchronic dimension aims to identify how your company manages time. In this case their orientation is predominantly synchronized and, although it considers important past and present, its focus is on long-term actions, or in the future. This will require a great interface between departments, due to this need the company started to use a matrix organizational structure, allowing flexibility and dynamism of the company's operations. The dimension related to time management can be considered one of the most impact on the implementation of the Strategic Planning, mainly by influencing the way tasks are performed and, as it will determine the relationships within the organization.

The last dimension considered corresponds to the Directed Internally x  Directed Externally. There is a balance between the two orientations, because even though the organization try to control their environment through a proactive stance, it is also flexible and adapt to environmental changes and nuances, this feature related to the external direction. This cultural dimension was more influenced by the implementation of the tool that effectively influence the implementation process, since with the adoption of the Strategic Planning as a management tool, the company changed from a reactive posture to a proactive stance in relation to their environment. This cultural dimension was reflected even in the time-related dimension, which now focus more future time.

Moreover, it is noteworthy that the same way that organizational culture influences directly the implementation of a management tool, it also causes changes in the structure, way of thinking and behaving individuals, ie, in their cultural patterns.

Thus, gathering information about the culture of the organization allows the implementation of a tool, such as Strategic Planning, can be implemented effectively avoiding resistance and tapping the potential of the company.


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1 Universidade Federal de Santa Maria – UFSM
2 Universidade de Passo Fundo – UPF
3 Universidade Federal de Santa Maria – UFSM

Vol. 33 (3) 2012